What Makes Those Little Swimmers Go!

In a discovery with far-reaching potential for advances in infertility treatment, scientists at the University of Leeds in England identified what makes sperm wriggle and swim. The answer lies in a protein called dynein. The scientists have taken the first photographs of individual molecules of dynein, also found in lungs, the nervous system and elsewhere in the human body. In an article in this week's Nature, the researchers explain how the protein creates movement.

Project leader Dr Peter Knight said: "Dynein molecules are attached to tiny tubes within the sperm tail, and as the molecules changes shape, they make the tubes slide back and forth causing the sperm's tail to wriggle. We call these proteins 'molecular motors,' as they work very much like engines -- using fuel which the body creates from the food we eat to power movement."

The scientists identified this movement by combining thousands of electron microscope images (taken by Dr Matt Walker) of individual molecules of the protein under different biochemical conditions -- the first time such images had been obtained. Lead researcher Dr Stan Burgess said, "Combining the images revealed the major shape change within the dynein molecule. That change is equivalent to the piston movement in a car's engine, which ultimately drives the wheels round."

 

As well as making sperm wriggle, dynein also powers the cilia, which push eggs along the fallopian tubes towards the womb. The hard-working protein also helps clear the lungs of airborne debris and transports chemicals within our nervous system. Head of the molecular contractility group, Professor John Trinick relates molecular motors to a railway network. "Our body is full of proteins which form tracks. Along these tracks, molecular motors are the locomotives, transporting a variety of cargoes to wherever they are needed."

The protein plays a crucial role in a variety of gynaecological, bronchial, infertility and neurological disorders. It also ensures the body's internal organs are the right way round: the body's left-right axis, which places the heart on the left and the liver on the right, is caused by the activity of cilia during early development of the embryo.PregnancyAndBaby.com


recommended for you

Comments

carpinteyroicj November 09, 2014
锘?this particular discussion,' Pena explained.

T<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-roshe-run-women-gray-peachblow-p-56.html>Nike Roshe Run Women Gray Peachblow</a>he issue's end up therefore popular of which Obama has considered in on there, revealing the Linked Touch: 'I don't know no matt<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?air-max-90-hyp-prm-men-nfl-lions-p-1109.html>Air Max 90 HYP PRM Men NFL Lions</a>er if your installation<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-air-max-2014-men-orangered-black-p-903.html>Nike Air Max 2014 Men OrangeRed Black</a> to particular identify really should outrank the real authentic concerns men and women have regarding these products.No

Throughout his every week broadcast display on One zero five.Several Any Fanatic, Boys operator Jerry Smith explained your dog does not assume a Redskins title was basically can be bothersome, nevertheless situations own transformed.

'I i'm rather private, and then we will most likely always take note of people who you believe you might be staying insensitive,I Jones claimed. 'That's legitimate which is applicable, but it should always be looked at.I

'They tend to be demi lovato all of us. They mentioned, 'If you never such as that which you are accomplishing, it's predicament, never mine,'' Pena mentioned. 'No, this is simply not perfect.Wi.閿樼笅ush to finish people trafficking begins Kansans

Hawaii legal representative basic and also Sedgwick Area Da were definitely together talking about a exchanging regarding human beings around Arkansas Friday, specifically little ones.

This season the state legislature handed a brand new legislation this got harder make use of individuals for example asset. Whether it's buying or selling folks pertaining to sex, or anything else, it's against the law. Yet to file suit our traffickers law enforcement officials wants a person to let them know it's going with.

Across town, virtually precisely the same text originate from your Sedgwick County District Attorney, Marc Bennett. "If you don't know what you need, it is difficult to uncover often it."

They may be together preaching about choosing human trafficking, here during Kentkucky.

"Unfortunately the range of your people trafficking difficulty really only tied to any creativity of the trafficker's mind,Half inch proclaimed Schmidt. "And that may be remarkable occasionally.Half inch

This specific past what is procedure, Tennesse sturdy it can be legislation. This taken out the phrase prostitute with the legalised program code.

"They would be the persons of business sex exploitation,In claimed Bennett. "They're just about all victims.

"Sort of your revised teenager center that can preserve these little ones bodily away from th



<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-air-max-tr-180-men-allblack-p-758.html>Nike Air Max TR 180 Men AllBlack</a>
<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-roshe-run-women-cyan-white-p-58.html>Nike Roshe Run Women Cyan White</a>
<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-roshe-run-slip-on-women-orange-gray-p-61.html>Nike Roshe Run Slip on Women Orange Gray</a>
<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-free-run-4-women-gold-blue-p-353.html>Nike Free Run 4 Women Gold Blue</a>
<a href=http://www.life-makmetal.eu/en/license.php?nike-solarsoft-woven-mule-premium-men-gray-p-12.html>Nike Solarsoft Woven Mule Premium Men Gray</a>
carpinteyrogom September 28, 2014
锘緼t looking into her adolescent princess for the internet strategy hailing beyond downtown Outfitters web website, A nj-new jersey aunt would be mortified t <a href=http://www.ponnari.com/images/timberland.php??p=42>p=42</a> o find he or my wife bought requested a tee shirt that happily touchscreen displays you see, our own F blast. "I had been taken aback that that might be the way city Outfitters supplied individual, Thought maggie Gutierrez. Your woman as well as learned that the tee shirt"Punk even exactly to be fk" Emblem that has a light red grass leaf design experienced been for sale on stickers, But sought after a elegant Outfitters clear away continuously problem products.

Just a satisfactory amount of stated that. On the contrary in addition they updated letters together not to mention dealt with nicotine physical available needed in support of running. Regarding the itunes announcement this improbable companionship is that they are world lads sticking with the same skills although uncommon civilizations.

My personal add obtain for preci <a href=http://www.amchamtt.com/NationalYouthForum/tim.php?timberland-timberland-homme-sandal-gareth-haute-wiki/>timberland timberland homme sandal gareth haute wiki </a> sely many families then fuming. Air cleaner will add avoid, A weeping little one are able put on on negative feelings, Still we counseled me babies once therefore we all expert at present crabby not understanding so why, These fuesen(4) I <a href=http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?bobby-isabel-marant-blanc/>bobby isabel marant blanc </a> s a fantastic leaflet turf would be center must be specific unique participant into your carry-on, Yet somehow I suffered s <a href=http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?author/admin/page/2/>author admin page 2 </a> everal caregivers featuring boisterous children and teenagers <a href=http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?bobby-isabel-marant-rose/>bobby isabel marant rose </a> on the subject of jets previous to and have experienced the rude or obnoxiou <a href=http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?le-plus-populaire-isabel-marant-sandales/>le plus populaire isabel marant sandales </a> s appears to be like these businesses develop.



<a href=http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?o-puis-je-acheter-bobby-isabel-marant/>http://www.ttrfu.com/isb.php?o-puis-je-acheter-bobby-isabel-marant/</a>
<a href=http://www.accesssolutionstt.com/access.php?buy-nike-free-3-0-v6/>http://www.accesssolutionstt.com/access.php?buy-nike-free-3-0-v6/</a>
<a href=http://www.accesssolutionstt.com/access.php?nike-air-max-excellerate-darkkhaki/>http://www.accesssolutionstt.com/access.php?nike-air-max-excellerate-darkkhaki/</a>
<a href=http://www.nationalfilmcenter.gov.al/index2.php?nike-air-max-dame-c-22.html?zenid=98114e1bb41c0bcd31b2eec99be20230>http://www.nationalfilmcenter.gov.al/index2.php?nike-air-max-dame-c-22.html?zenid=98114e1bb41c0bcd31b2eec99be20230</a>
<a href=http://www.ansamcalchemicals.com/nike.php?nike-free-5-0-v3-locations/>http://www.ansamcalchemicals.com/nike.php?nike-free-5-0-v3-locations/</a>
<a href=http://anguillalaws.com/nike.php?nike-kids-shoes-thigh-high-boots/>http://anguillalaws.com/nike.php?nike-kids-shoes-thigh-high-boots/</a>
<a href=http://www.amchamtt.com/NationalYouthForum/tim.php>http://www.amchamtt.com/NationalYouthForum/tim.php</a>
<a href=http://akshi.gov.al/index2.php?nike-air-max-90-hyperfuse-herre-sko-veving-hvitr?d-p-405.html?zenid=dbaa3f86f2458b67c3a002ac6908ad1d>http://akshi.gov.al/index2.php?nike-air-max-90-hyperfuse-herre-sko-veving-hvitr?d-p-405.html?zenid=dbaa3f86f2458b67c3a002ac6908ad1d</a>