A study led by scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has determined that a novel enzyme in sperm is essential for sperm motility and male fertility. The new study may offer a potential target for an effective, non-hormonal male contraceptive, the researchers say. The findings were published in the online early edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Sperm motility, produced by the coordinated movement of the extremely long sperm tail, requires substantial energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the major energy currency of the cell.


Specialized cellular structures known as mitochondria were thought to provide a substantial portion of the ATP needed for sperm motility. In contrast, Dr Deborah A. O'Brien, associate professor of cell and developmental biology at UNC's School of Medicine, and her colleagues found that sperm motility and ATP production depend primarily on a metabolic pathway known as glycolysis. This pathway uses sugar to produce energy, a common process in animal and plant cells.

The researchers focused on the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, or GAPDS, a novel enzyme in the glycolytic pathway that is expressed only in germ cells very late in the process of sperm production.

GAPDS is tightly bound to a structural element that extends along most of the length of the sperm tail. The study team used gene targeting, or gene knockout technology, to produce mice that could not make this unique enzyme.

Without GAPDS, glycolysis is selectively blocked in sperm and this pathway produces no ATP. As expected, the females were normal and the males had normal testes and sperm counts, but they were infertile, Dr O'Brien says.

And when the researchers analyzed sperm movement under a microscope, they found a surprise.

"We expected that a type of motility known as 'hyperactivated motility' would be inhibited, but found that all progressive movement was absent in sperm without GAPDS," O'Brien says.

"Glycolysis may not be as efficient as mitochondria for producing energy, but the enzymes are abundant and in the right place for quick, localized energy production along the sperm tail. This paper provides proof of principle that GAPDS may be an effective target for a contraceptive agent."PregnancyAndBaby.com

Tags: sperm

recommended for you


andyokt November 14, 2014
锘縰lty occurs at Cooroy.Inch

Your Group Federal focused on concluding your whole improvement by just 2020.

"We have a tendency as soon as we can,In . Mister Truss said.

Mr Albanese reported Mister Truss appeared to be an important part of the federal government which in fact had completed very little intended for 10 yrs "and this individual was transportation minister".

"I switched the 1st sod about the first area for you been recently absolutely no more money for your Bruce Hwy within the fresh national Price range," Mister Albanese reported.

"He hasn built a person metre involving street this wasn started by way of Labor."Most Favorite Stories Simply just Within Precisely how these days Brown's cattle? Dairy food saying stop hunting Read Total Story閿樼笅ass The particular Products


We wash my the teeth evening in addition to overnight plus get flossing in the entire day! Now i'm supplying you with a credentials on my little wellness because for a lady with 4 oral cavaties you'd think I personally wasn't looking after this pearly white's. In the meantime, my better half who seem to was not on the dental practitioner inside nearly half a decade left in the place of work yesterday which has a thoroughly clean monthly bill associated with wellness, truly?! Possibly not trendy in other words I guess it is actually. I had didn't have lots of teeth cavities so I seemed to be surprised if your physician reported five; ideas involving knitting needles, chuckling fuel and dollar signs placed produce. We would worry this extra apart from Everyone loves the dentist profesionist together with her own employees. It truly is similar to about to satisfied 60 minutes except there's really no alcoholic beverages, at this point you will find there's notion.

Manged to get the first two filled recently along with revisit in some many weeks to complete the work. I am just combing along with fluoride tooth paste in addition to my husband is usually smiling that has a laugh sufficiently big to display her tooth cavity free mouth area. The gender predictor with regards to rivaling your significant other that is this type of sketch? Chips we undertake it a great deal from working to overcome one other to the front door, to help guessing tracks for the radio and now who have a lesser number of teeth cavities. I'm guessing that keeps items appealing or simply we're also just unique. Remember to let me know I am not saying on your own exactly who competes for entertainment utilizing my spouse?閿樼笅assage regarding ND Measure Only two Would Affect Brand new Southwest

There is not a definite location at this time to the new southwest end college, speculate the August 14 ballot morning quick approaches, the varsity centre has got to

<a href=http://rhand.org.tt/Uploads/nike/nike20884.html>cheap nike air max lebron x</a>
<a href=http://rhand.org.tt/Uploads/nike/nike18923.html>air jordan bred 11 release date</a>
<a href=http://rhand.org.tt/Uploads/nike/nike22394.html>nike air max zenske novi modeli</a>
<a href=http://rhand.org.tt/Uploads/nike/nike15178.html>nike air max 95 df review</a>
<a href=http://rhand.org.tt/Uploads/nike/nike23446.html>nike free 2.0 3.0 5.0 unterschied</a>