Witch Hazel Is One Of The Safest Natural Postpartum Vaginal Care Options Around.

Witch hazel is a must have item for all new mamas and luckily you don't need a cauldron to use...
Witch hazel is a must have item for all new mamas and luckily you don't need a cauldron to use it. If you're thinking that witch hazel is only for hippies, witch doctors or natural healers you couldn't be more wrong. Witch hazel is an excellent and safe remedy for plenty of what ails new mamas. Infusions made with the bark and leaves of the witch hazel plant (Hamamelis virginiana) have been used safely in America since before the Mayflower's arrival in the New World. The bark and leaves themselves are cleansing and have astringent qualities. Witch hazel is added to facial and body care products, aftershaves, dandruff shampoos and many other commercial products.


As a new mama helper, witch hazel is your best friend! Witch hazel can be used on swollen body parts (birth gives your body quite the beating), varicose veins and makes a wonderful treatment for two obnoxious new mama problems - a sore perineum and hemorrhoids. Perineum problems after birth: After you give birth you'll most likely experience uncomfortable swelling, pain, and itching in the perineum area. Perineum problems aren't a big shock considering you just pushed your baby out of what's normally a pretty small opening right? If you had an episiotomy the pain and itching can be even worse. It's very important you care for your perineal area to avoid infection (and general crankiness). Many hospitals and health care providers will recommend pain relief options like ice packs, sitz baths and a numbing spray such as Dermoplast. Ice packs and sitz baths can provide some relief but not for long. Dermoplast is not the safest choice in my opinion. The main ingredient in Dermoplast is benzocaine. Benzocaine works like a chemical barrier, blocking pain but doesn't really aid the healing process and many people have allergic reactions to it. Additionally an overdose of benzocaine can cause fatal side effects - this medicine can be absorbed through your skin and into your blood. Lastly, it's not currently known whether benzocaine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Witch hazel perineum care: Witch hazel is an inexpensive and safe choice for proper perineal care.
  • Midwifery Today notes that witch hazel can be safely applied directly to the perineum or you can try soaking a cloth in cold water, wringing it out thoroughly and putting witch hazel on it before applying to the perineum. The Mayo Clinic agrees that witch hazel is a safe perineum treatment and suggests placing chilled witch hazel pads on your perineum to aid in the soothing and healing process.
  • Instead of a commercial peri-care spray you can also simply fill a little spray bottle with witch hazel and spray away. This spray is a healing and safer choice than many store bought sprays.
  • After you use the bathroom grab that postpartum vaginal perineal bottle the hospital or your midwife gave you. Fill the bottle with warm water and a dash of witch hazel - squirt onto your perineal area to cleanse and help reduce swelling.
Witch hazel pads and sprays can also be used to help treat and sooth postnatal hemorrhoids as well. Follow the directions above except apply pads and sprays to the hemorrhoids. WHERE TO GET WITCH HAZEL: Many commercial witch hazel products contain more alcohol than witch hazel so you need to be careful when choosing a witch hazel product. Good options include... NOTE: No matter what perineal care products or treatments you try, always contact your midwife or doctor right away if the pain in this area intensifies, if the area feels very hot, overly swollen or you have pus-like discharge. All of the above may indicate an infection that require immediate treatment. BONUS TREAT: I know all this talk of hemorrhoids and peri care is not the most fun. With that in mind why not make a treat with witch hazel? Try this super Homemade Organic & Refreshing Herbal Facial Toner recipe. [image via US Forest Service]

Tags: hemorrhoids after pregnancy natural pregnancy care new mama care organic witch hazel postpartum health postpartum vaginal care vaginal itch vaginal pain vaginal soreness witch hazel witch hazel pads witch hazel spray

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This specific picture taken on August 25, This year, plus revealed with the NYFD, displays Lt. Gordon Ambelas, who seem to perished for a hospital later Saturday nights, July Some, 2014, right after combating your fire which started upon an higher flooring associated with a Brooklyn public real estate high-rise within The big apple. A couple of alternative firefighters were definitely transported to Bellevue Medical center along with small injuries, and two ordinary people ended up being cared for with regard to slight incidents from location hospitals. (AP Photo/NYFD) (AP)

A lightweight odor of light up placed uphill beyond the setting up Saturday seeing that researchers went about the work they do as well as occupants returned.

Steven Jimenez, 17, has been coming back from a cookout to be able to their 9th ground residence whilst noticed fire flames from a 1800s floors home window. As they waited exterior, the guy saw as being a bandaged Ambelas was executed, he said.

"It checked frightening . and yes it was terrifying who's took place within my local,In . mentioned Jimenez, exactly who inevitably expended night for a good friend's household.

Ambelas, which other firefighters identified as your ex Matt, was initially the 1st Ny firemen killed available since Lt. Richard Your. Nappi passed away dealing with your Brooklyn manufacturing facility blaze in 04 Next.

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Shereka Fab Ann Marsh passed on soon after simply being opportunity once during the throat at a household within Eastway, Hackney, east London with Weekend afternoon.

Within a homage granted via their particular regional Mayor Megabites Hillier, this schoolgirl's friends and family stated: "Shereka Marsh was a wonderful standard, uptempo extrovert teenager with no shortage of pals.

"She has not been interested in gangs or violence. The lady did not ingest or simply bring medication. The woman's mommy generally believed exactly where your lover was.

"Shereka would be a conscientious, hardworking younger women with so a lot to seem forward to.In

Many people increased which will any sort of accounts implying otherwise ended up "particularly hurtful on the spouse and children only at that pretty painful time" because they requested security "to be prepared for his or her loss".

Faculty mates for Shereka explained wishes and also the girl's household in a construction right now.

The lady had been kept in mind by workforce and the 400 pupils on the Urswick Faculty throughout Hackney this morning, headmaster Richard Brown explained.

Mr Darkish explained kids together with workers along at the Cathedral involving He uk education had been feelings of loss have an effect on some sort of "shining star" meant for good scores in her GCSEs.

He was quoted saying: "We placed a system at the beginning of the morning and we all have got stated praying intended for Shereka, and the girl's relatives too.

"We have a very religious organization and kids happen to be checking out of which at all hours.Half inch

Mr Red claimed Shereka experienced used just lately to study with the course's sixth sort just after her GCSEs and therefore the girl's chosen topic appeared to be past.

He explained: "She became a glowing star of the institution, the girl was well-known by just students plus workers. This lady had been a genuine superior virtually all body, accomplished at athletics but will also the woman instructional subject matter at the same time.In

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In this position, Jones was successful in capturing 16 British ships in a six week cruise. Eventually, he was promoted to the rank of a captain. On October 8, 1776, he was given the responsibility to command 'Alfred'. Today the greatest menace to mankind may well be the American tendency to overrespond to heathen evils abroad, either by attacking them or by condemning them to outer darkness. The study of American foreign missions and their long continued conditioning influence at home needs no special advocacy in an age when we get our power politics overextended into foreign disasters like Vietnam mainly through an excess of righteousness and disinterested benevolence, under a President who talks like a Baptist preacher and who inherited his disaster from a Secretary of State who was also a ruling elder of the Presbyterian Church. Plainly the missionary impulse has contributed both to the American swelled head and to its recent crown of thorns..
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Please feel free to contribute your thoughts here, though. The column is meant to be a discussion starter for the forum, among other things, and I love reading all feedback and comments. It's an opportunity for new thoughts and viewpoints to be expressed that weren't covered in the column due to time or context restraints. I may not agree with you, but I'm glad you're expressing your views (since you're right, we didn't have much of a conservative voice in this discussion).
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Posted: February 19, 2007Aiming to uncover the physics that power the auroras that crown Earth's poles, five tiny probes have been launched into space for a synchronized orbital dance to locate where the trigger is pulled to create the eerily magnificent displays. The Delta 2 rocket lifts off at 6:01 p.m. EST (2301 GMT). Credit: Carleton Bailie for United Launch Alliance NASA's $200 million THEMIS mission blasted off just before sunset Saturday from Cape Canaveral's pad 17B aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket.The 73-minute flight of the three-stage launcher culminated off the northeastern coast of Australia, when the five probes were flung off their spinning carrier.Each of the 282-pound spacecraft is equipped with identical suites of instruments to examine the origin of space explosions known as substorms. The events start with the soup of ionized particles from the sun, called the solar wind, buffeting the Earth at a million miles per hour. Some of that energy gets trapped in the magnetic field, causing the field lines to stretch back in the direction opposite the sun like rubberbands. But when stretched too far the lines snap, releasing the energy that generates shimmering auroral displays."For over 30 years, the source location of these explosive energy releases has been sought after with great fervor. It is a question almost as old as space physics itself," said THEMIS principal investigator Vassilis Angelopoulos. "A substorm starts from a single point in space and progresses past the moon's orbit within minutes, so a single satellite cannot identify the substorm origin. The five-satellite constellation of THEMIS will finally identify the trigger location and the physics involved in substorms." "Substorms are what make the aurorae interesting," said John Bonnell, a plasma physicist and aurora specialist with THEMIS. "Without them, the greenish white sheets are static, like a cloud. Substorms make the sheets ripple and create different colors, such as red borders and colorful edge effects." "THEMIS is so important because the same fundamental physical process is seen around all planets, it happens on the sun in solar flares, and in astrophysical systems such as black holes," Angelopoulos said. "It's amazing that being so close to us, here at Earth, it is not understood yet." An artist's concept shows the five THEMIS probes in space. Credit: NASATHEMIS is the first NASA mission to launch five science satellites together aboard one rocket."They say good things come in small packages. I'd have to say these probes are great by that measure," said Peter Harvey, the THEMIS project manager from the University of California at Berkeley."They are powerful. It is amazing to think that these things will accelerate themselves over half-way to the moon. Each one has 40 percent of its weight as fuel. So it's able to change its orbit and go quite a distance."The probes are tough. They can take flying through the radiation belts and keep on going. They can take three-hour shadows of the Earth and keep every component inside warm while the outside is freezing cold."The probes are smart. Every one of them travels a vast distance from the Earth and can't do that in contact with the Earth. So it can't constantly telemeter. So each probe has to then detect the substorm, capture that data, compress it and then wait until it gets closer to Earth to transmit that data to the ground."The probes are really efficiently packed. Things are so jam-packed inside each probe that you can't fit your hand in between any two items."The probes were built by Swales Aerospace, and their measurements will be combined with a network of observatories across the northern U.S. and Canadian."I cannot explain all my excitement. This has been a truly exciting project -- building five spacecraft and 20 ground-based observatories, flying spacecraft in synchronized orbits. You couldn't ask for more," Harvey said. An artist's concept shows the five THEMIS probes in space. Credit: NASAThe craft will spend the next month activating their instruments. This fall, controllers will maneuver the probes into wide-ranging orbits to begin the sophisticated orbital ballet in which all five line up behind the Earth once every four days to hunt for the substorm trigger site. The main science-collecting period will occur during the winter.Saturday's launch marked the 72nd consecutive successful flight by a Delta 2 rocket since 1997 and the 125th success overall in the 127-flight history of the workhorse booster dating back to 1989. "The United Launch Alliance team is proud to support the science and robotic mission of NASA's space exploration program by successfully completing our first east coast launch," said Mike Gass, president and chief executive officer of ULA.The newly-formed United Launch Alliance now manages all Delta and Atlas rocket missions. ULA is the joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin that has combined the Delta and Atlas rocket fleets."This is the first of a total of 21 launches we have manifested in 2007 consisting of a dozen Delta 2s, six Atlas 5s and three Delta 4s from the east and west coasts," said Dan Collins, ULA chief operating officer. "As our team proved today, they are up to the task. By focusing on safe practices, customer needs and mission success, I believe 2007 will be a banner inaugural year for ULA." Next up is the Atlas 5 launch of six experimental satellites for the U.S. military. That liftoff from Cape Canaveral had been planned for February 22, but officials ordered a two-week delay while the Sea Launch failure investigation continues. The Atlas 5's RD-180 first stage main engine is derived from the Russian powerplant used on the Sea Launch Zenit boosters.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:DELTA ROCKET LAUNCHES THEMIS VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PRESS SITE VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PATRICK AFB VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PLAYALINDA BEACH VIDEO:SPACECRAFT SEPARATION CONFIRMED VIDEO:POST-LAUNCH COMMENTS VIDEO:FRIDAY'S LAUNCH ATTEMPT SCRUBBED VIDEO:PAD SERVICE GANTRY ROLLED BACK VIDEO:THEMIS MISSION SCIENCE PREVIEW VIDEO:WATCH THE PRE-LAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:ROCKET NOSE CONE INSTALLED AROUND THEMIS VIDEO:SPACECRAFT MOUNTED ATOP DELTA ROCKET VIDEO:THEMIS DELIVERED TO THE LAUNCH PAD VIDEO:SECOND STAGE ATTACHED VIDEO:FIRST STAGE ERECTED MORE:Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. 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The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Fixes ordered across Boeing's Delta 4 rocket line SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 10, 2005CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - Boeing's Delta 4 rockets are being retrofitted with new pressure valves to alleviate bubbling in liquid oxygen fuel lines that possibly occurred in the fleet's maiden liftoff in 2002 and investigators determined caused engine trouble during the first Heavy booster's December test flight.The so-called cavitation is a phenomenon when super-cold cryogenic liquid oxygen changes to vapor bubbles within a rocket's feedlines running from fuel tanks to engines.Rocket designers never caught the potential for such a problem in the Delta 4's first stage until after the Heavy's demonstration launch that suffered early extinctions of its three main engines during ascent. The shortened firings resulted in the rocket failing to achieve the proper altitude to deploy a pair of student-built nanosat experiments and a massive satellite mockup.The inquiry into the incident formally concluded with corrective actions to fix both the Delta 4-Medium and -Heavy rocket versions to prevent a repeat on future launches.Government and industry investigators said the bubbling started at the entrance of the liquid oxygen feedline where a filtration screen, the line's elbow bend and an internal gimbal strut altered the fuel flow. This changed the fluid's speed and decreased pressure as the liquid oxygen streamed from the tank.The Delta 4-Heavy features three Common Booster Core stages mounted together, each identical with a liquid oxygen tank on top, the large liquid hydrogen fuel tank accounting for three-quarters of the stage's length and a Rocketdyne RS-68 engine at the bottom.All three CBCs on the Heavy demo flight saw cavitation. The bubbles made their way five feet downstream from the liquid oxygen tanks to internal sensors used to tell the engines when the fuel supply is expended and command the shutoff sequence. The bubbles fooled the sensors into thinking the tanks were going dry and triggered the engine cutoff despite plenty of liquid oxygen still aboard."This feedline design has been present in all previous Delta 4 flights, but the unique combination of vehicle acceleration, liquid level in the tank and propellant flow rate for the Heavy mission reduced the fluid pressure enough to enable the creation of gaseous oxygen at this location as the tanks emptied," investigators determined."Further draining of the liquid oxygen tank worsened the conditions at the feedline inlet, causing the cavitation effect to extend further down the feedline. A pocket of gaseous oxygen continued to enlarge until it reached the Engine Cut-Off (ECO) sensors and caused the ECO sensors to momentarily indicate dry. This ECO sensor dry indication was sensed by the flight computer, which initiated the sequence to throttle-down and shut off the main engines as it is programmed to do."In reality, flight data showed that sufficient propellant remained in the tank to complete the planned first stage burn time."Despite extensive analytical work to understand the rocket's performance before the Heavy flight and even the first Delta 4-Medium in 2002, engineers did not look at the engine cutoff sensor area for possible cavitation."Based on a lot of previous experience we look very hard at cavitation at the inlet to the RS-68 engine, as that is the traditional place where cavitation might cause a problem. We did not look at this issue up at the top of the feedline where the ECO sensor is," Dan Collins, Boeing's Vice President of Expendable Launch Systems, said in a news conference Friday. The media briefing followed a remarkably open and forthcoming flow of information throughout the investigation that began immediately after the December 21 launch."We are as much at fault as Boeing in terms of not looking at this. Cavitation at the engines is a routine phenomenon. For whatever reason we did not think to look 100 feet up the LOX feedline," said Ken Holden, general manager of the EELV division at the federally-funded engineering support firm Aerospace Corp. "The nuances of this are such that it would not occur on each and every mission. It took a particular set of circumstances to bring this together."As part of the Heavy's investigation, engineers reviewed data from the earlier three Medium missions to see if bubbling occurred on those launches. The inaugural flight possibly experienced cavitation, however it did not trigger an engine shutdown."We have gone back and looked very hard at this phenomenon. There is a possibility that it may have occurred on one of the earlier flights," Collins said."We did not have the special instrumentation that was present on the Heavy demo, though, to know that for sure. There was absolutely no premature (engine cutoff), no signs of this at all. And when I say cavitation, it is possible that a very small vapor bubble well away from the engine cutoff sensors may have developed. There was absolutely no interaction with the cavitation and the engine cutoff sensors."Hardware and computer software changes are being ordered to increase the pressure in the liquid oxygen tank to counteract the pressure losses in the upper portion of the feedline, thereby removing the potential for bubbles forming. The earlier Delta 4 flights permitted the pressure to drop during the rocket's ascent. To raise the tank pressure later in the launch phase, the current pressure relief valve will be replaced with one having a higher pressure. Also, flight software will be modified to provide commands needed to increase the tank pressure later in the launch.Other alterations to onboard software include changes to guard against the engine cutoff sensors being tricked. The time in which the rocket's computer brain will begin accepting "dry" signals from the fuel lines will be moved later, the Air Force said."It's really a one-time fix that we will then carry through all vehicles going forward. We will have those completed over the next several months," Collins said.The next Delta 4 mission, using a Medium vehicle, does not require the fixes because its flight profile is deemed not susceptible to cavitation. That mid-to-late May launch will carry the next civilian geostationary weather satellite into orbit for the U.S. government from Cape Canaveral.The first rocket to receive the changes is stacked on the Space Launch Complex-6 pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California for a planned August 30 liftoff with a classified national security satellite payload.Schedules call for the next Heavy mission to occur on October 28 to deploy a missile-launch detection satellite, called DSP-23, from Cape Canaveral. Collins said the fixes won't delay the launch plans."All in all, the Heavy demo mission was successful in providing a wealth of vehicle design, environment and performance validation data. We are now taking all our knowledge and understanding from this Demo mission and applying it as we prepare for our operational missions," Collins said."Straightforward fixes have been identified that will allow us to safely fly the Delta 4 fleet without risk of repeating the cavitation that led to premature engine shutdown," said Col. John Insprucker, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle system program director."The team findings do not detract from the successes we experienced on the Delta 4 mission. We successfully checked out and launched a Heavy rocket from the Boeing launch pad that also saw its first Heavy flight. We successfully flew three liquid-propelled booster cores side-by-side and cleanly separated the strap ons. We successfully flew the upper stage through the long three-burn profile required of a geosynchronous mission. We successfully separated the Demosat satellite."The ability of the Delta 4 to fly an end-to-end mission, despite the premature engine shutdown, made this an exemplary test flight," Insprucker said.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:SPACEFLIGHT NOW LAUNCH PAD CAMERA 1 VIDEO:SPACEFLIGHT NOW LAUNCH PAD CAMERA 2 VIDEO:FROM LIFTOFF TO BOOSTER SEPARATION VIDEO:THE DELTA 4-HEAVY LAUNCH (SHORT VERSION) VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA RECORDS LAUNCH VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA SEES BOOSTER SEPARATION VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA CAPTURES FAIRING JETTISON AUDIO:LISTEN TO THE 68-MINUTE PRE-LAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:ANIMATION PROVIDES PREVIEW OF A DELTA 4-HEAVY LAUNCH VIDEO:RE-LIVE THE INAUGURAL DELTA 4 LAUNCH FROM 2002 VIDEO:ON-PAD FLIGHT READINESS ENGINE FIRING TEST VIDEO:TAKE TOUR OF LAUNCH PAD 37B Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors' patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: - - - Inside Apollo mission controlAn insider's view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. 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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: October 26, 2004TIME (EDT)..IMAGES....RESOLUTION (miles/pixel)............NAC/WAC...NAC/WAC.....EVENT/OBSERVATION TYPE10/2502:30 p.m.........................Begin approach observations01:14 p.m.........................Begin medium resolution observations10/2607:44 a.m.........................Begin high resolution observations10:56 a.m.........................Transition to thruster control11:17 a.m.........................Turn HGA toward Titan11:29 a.m.........................Begin inbound RADAR scatterometry11:59 a.m.........................Turn cameras back to Titan12:32 p.m.........................Turn INMS/HGA to Titan ram direction12:38 p.m.........................Begin INMS atmospheric collection12:44 p.m.........................Titan closest approach12:44 p.m.........................Begin high-res RADAR/SAR imaging12:50 p.m.........................Begin low-res RADAR/SAR imaging01:00 p.m.........................Begin RADAR altimetry01:14 p.m.........................Begin outbound RADAR scatterometry01:59 p.m.........................Transition to reaction wheel control02:07 p.m.........................Ascending ring plane crossing02:23 p.m.........................Begin RADAR radiometry09:15 p.m.........................Turn to Earthline09:40 p.m.........................Begin A5 data playback (CRITICAL)09:41 p.m...10/00.....1.7/16.8....ISS: Low resolution09:43 p.m...00/14.....1.3/13......ISS10:10 p.m...63/06.....1.2/11.8....ISS10:25 p.m...00/07.....0.87/8.7....ISS11:15 p.m...12/36.....0.37/3.7....ISS: Medium resolution10/2712:23 a.m...87/01.....0.25/2.5....ISS: Regional map12:51 a.m...87/01.....0.13/1.3....ISS: High resolution01:44 a.m.........................Begin A4 playback science/engineering01:56 a.m.........................Begin B4 playback02:28 a.m...23/23.....0.11/1.1....ISS: RADRCS02:32 a.m.........................ISS: Waypoint turn02:40 a.m...18/29.....17'/755'....ISS: Highest resolution (17 ft/pixel)05:04 a.m...32/43.....0.62/6.2....ISS: Ultraviolet05:29 a.m.........................Begin B4 playback science/engineering05:30 a.m.........................Begin A5 data playback (CRITICAL)05:31 a.m.........................Resume B4 playback05:22 a.m.........................END TA playback07:33 a.m.........................Saturn closest approach05:13 p.m.........................Descending ring plane crossing | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Fresh crater on Rhea? CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: January 4, 2004Rhea has been heavily bombarded by impacts during its history. In this Cassini image the moon displays what may be a relatively fresh, bright, rayed crater near Rhea's eastern limb. Rhea is 1,528 kilometers (949 miles) across. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version This view is centered on the side of Rhea that faces away from Saturn as the moon orbits. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Nov. 10, 2004, at a distance of 3.6 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) from Rhea and at a Sun-Rhea-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 86 degrees. North is up. The image scale is 21 kilometers (13 miles) per pixel. The image has been magnified by a factor of two and contrast enhanced to aid visibility of surface features. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.From Saturn's dark side CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 11, 2004As Cassini swung around to the dark side of the planet during its first close passage after orbit insertion, the intrepid spacecraft spied three ring moons whizzing around the planet. Visible in this image are: Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) brightest and above center; Janus (181 kilometers, or 112 miles across) second brightest at upper left; and Prometheus (102 kilometers, or 63 miles across) just above the main rings at upper left. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The normally bright B ring appears very dark from this vantage point. Regions with smaller concentrations of particles, such as the Cassini division (bright near center) transmit more sunlight and thus are brighter. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide angle camera at a distance of 757,000 kilometers (470,000miles) from Saturn. The image scale is about 42 kilometers (26 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. 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Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Oct. 29, 2004, at a distance of about 807,000 kilometers (501,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 4.5 kilometers (2.8 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. 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Titan's surface is difficult to study, veiled by a dense hydrocarbon haze that forms in the high stratosphere as methane is destroyed by sunlight. This image is different from previous Titan images by Cassini because it was taken through a special filter, called a polarizer, which is designed to see through the atmosphere to the surface. The superimposed coordinate system grid in the accompanying image at right illustrates the geographical regions of the moon that are illuminated and visible, as well as the orientation of Titan. North is up and rotated 25 degrees to the left. The yellow curve marks the position of the boundary between day and night on Titan. This image shows about one quarter of Titan's surface, from 0 to 70 degrees West longitude, and just barely overlaps part of the surface shown in the previous Titan image release. Most of the visible surface in this image has not yet been shown in any Cassini image. The image was obtained with the narrow angle camera on June 14, 2004, at a phase, or Sun-Titan-spacecraft, angle of 61 degrees and at a distance of 10.4 million kilometers (6.5 million miles) from Titan. The image scale is 62 kilometers (39 miles) per pixel. The image was magnified by a factor of two using a linear interpolation scheme. No further processing to remove the effects of the overlying atmosphere has been performed. The observed brightness variations are real, on scales of one hundred kilometers or less. The image was obtained in the near-infrared (centered at 938 nanometers) through a polarizing filter. The combination was designed to reduce the obscuration by atmospheric haze. The haze is more transparent at 938 nanometers than at shorter wavelengths, and light of 938 nanometers wavelength is not absorbed by methane gas in Titan's atmosphere. Light at this wavelength consequently samples the surface, and the polarizer blocks out light scattered mainly by the haze. This is similar to the way a polarizer, put on the front of a lens of a hand-held camera, makes distant objects more clear on Earth. Cassini will conduct a critical 96-minute burn before going into orbit around Saturn on June 30 (July 1 Universal Time), with its first scheduled flyby of Titan on July 2.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Giant landslide on Iapetus CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: January 9, 2004A spectacular landslide within the low-brightness region of Iapetus's surface known as Cassini Regio is visible in this image from Cassini. Iapetus is one of the moons of Saturn. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The landslide material appears to have collapsed from a scarp 15 kilometers high (9 miles) that forms the rim of an ancient 600 kilometer (375 mile) impact basin. Unconsolidated rubble from the landslide extends halfway across a conspicuous, 120-kilometer diameter (75-mile) flat-floored impact crater that lies just inside the basin scarp. Landslides are common geological phenomena on many planetary bodies, including Earth and Mars. The appearance of this landslide on an icy satellite with low-brightness cratered terrain is reminiscent of landslide features that were observed during NASA's Galileo mission on the Jovian satellite Callisto. The fact that the Iapetus landslide traveled many kilometers from the basin scarp could indicate that the surface material is very fine-grained, and perhaps was fluffed by mechanical forces that allowed the landslide debris to flow extended distances. In this view, north is to the left of the picture and solar illumination is from the bottom of the frame. The image was obtained in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Dec. 31, 2004, at a distance of about 123,400 kilometers (76,677 miles) from Iapetus and at a Sun-Iapetus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 78 degrees. Resolution achieved in the original image was 740 meters (2,428 feet) per pixel. The image has been contrast-enhanced and magnified by a factor of two to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. 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Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version of image The superimposed coordinate system grid in the accompanying image at right illustrates the geographical regions of the moon that are illuminated and visible, as well as the orientation of Titan -- lines of longitude converge on the South Pole near the moon's eastern limb. The yellow curve marks the position of the boundary between day and night on Titan. Images taken through blue, green and red filters were combined to create this natural color view. The images were obtained with the Cassini spacecraft wide angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of about 790,000 kilometers (491,000 miles) from Titan and at a Sun-Titan-spacecraft, or phase angle of 115 degrees. The image scale is 47 kilometers (29 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Herding the Saturn's rings CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 26, 2004 Saturn's moon Prometheus is seen shepherding the inner edge of Saturn's F ring. Prometheus is 102 kilometers (63 miles) across and was captured in a close-up view by the Cassini spacecraft near the time of orbital insertion at Saturn. A number of clumps are visible here along the arcing F ring. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 8.2 million kilometers (5.1 million miles) from Saturn through a filter sensitive to visible green light. The image scale is 49 kilometers (33 miles) per pixel. Contrast was slightly enhanced to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Hovering over Titan CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: November 24, 2004A mosaic of nine processed images recently acquired during Cassini's first very close flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on Oct. 26, 2004, constitutes the most detailed full-disc view of the mysterious moon. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The view is centered on 15 degrees South latitude, and 156 degrees West longitude. Brightness variations across the surface and bright clouds near the south pole are easily seen. The images that comprise the mosaic have been processed to reduce the effects of the atmosphere and to sharpen surface features. The mosaic has been trimmed to show only the illuminated surface and not the atmosphere above the edge of the moon. The Sun was behind Cassini so nearly the full disc is illuminated. Pixels scales of the composite images vary from 2 to 4 kilometers per pixel (1.2 to 2.5 miles per pixel). Surface features are best seen near the center of the disc, where the spacecraft is looking directly downwards; the contrast becomes progressively lower and surface features become fuzzier towards the outside, where the spacecraft is peering through haze, a circumstance that washes out surface features. The brighter region on the right side and equatorial region is named Xanadu Regio. Scientists are actively debating what processes may have created the bizarre surface brightness patterns seen here. The images hint at a young surface with, no obvious craters. However, the exact nature of that activity, whether tectonic, wind-blown, fluvial, marine, or volcanic is still to be determined. The images comprising this mosaic were acquired from distances ranging from 650,000 kilometers (400,000 miles) to 300,000 kilometers (200,000 miles). The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft's arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12x12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA's Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Columbia ReportThe official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Includes CD-ROM. Choose your store: | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Huygens carrier signal 'solid' for more than two hours BY WILLIAM HARWOOD
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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 12, 2004 Cassini snaps a full view of Saturn and rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version Cassini's 12 scientific instruments fall into two broad categories: Remote sensing and fields and particles.Remote Sensing InstrumentsImaging Science Subsystem (wide- and narrow-angle cameras)Visible and Infrared Mapping SpectrometerComposite Infrared SpectrometerUltraviolet Imaging SpectrographCassini RadarRadio ScienceFields and ParticlesCassini Plasma SpectrometerIon and Neutral Mass SpectrometerCosmic Dust AnalyzerDual Technique MagnetometerMagnetospheric Imaging Mass SpectrometerRadio and Plasma Wave Science InstrumentUnlike the Voyager probes and the Galileo mission to Jupiter, Cassini's four optical remote sensing instruments are not mounted on an independently targetable scan platform. To observe a target, the entire spacecraft has to be re-oriented so the co-aligned optical instruments are properly aimed. Particles and fields instruments are mostly "scattered around the spacecraft," said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer. "What they want to do is, they want to sweep out mostly 360-degree coverage. So they don't point, they roll." And that requires the entire spacecraft to roll. It all makes for an enormously complicated ballet. "On Galileo, you pointed the antenna to Earth and you just left it there," said program manager Bob Mitchell. "You had a scan platform, you had a spinning section for the fields and particles instruments, the radio science guys were always happy because the antenna was pointed to Earth and you just left it in that configuration and you let it fly and you collected data all the time. "For us, you've got four optical remote sensing instruments that want to point, if you're lucky, in the same direction. You've got six fields and particles instruments that generally want to point someplace different. ... You've got radar that wants to point off perpendicular to where the ORS (remote sensing) guys want to look. You've got an aeronomy instrument that wants to point someplace different yet and so you've got this constant tension among the different investigations about where they're going to point this thing." The science objectives for Cassini-Huygens includes Saturn and its rings, Titan and the other moons and the planet's magnetosphere. Credit: NASA/JPLOn a typical day, Cassini will spend 16 hours or so collecting data, spending part of the time in an orientation that favors optical or radar studies and part of the time doing fields and particles work. During data collection, the high-gain antenna will be pointed away from Earth and Cassini will be operating on its own. "They'll do 15 minutes of imaging of this and 15 minutes of that and maybe two hours for (a movie of Saturn's atmosphere)," Webster said. "Then, we'll go off in different places and maybe they'll do a little mosaic. Of course, the interesting ones where everybody wants to be in the act are right around the icy satellite flybys and the Titans, and they've done a lot of horse trading over the years. "So they kind of work out times so that radar can take a little bit and maybe radio science, which has to point back to Earth can take a little bit and the ORS instruments can turn and take their pictures. It's a highly choreographed scenario that they work out on a daily basis. George Balanchine doesn't have anything on us!" Engineering and science data will be stored on two 2.2-gigabyte digital recorders that also hold backup copies of flight software for use as needed. After completing the day's science observations, Cassini will re-orient itself, aim its high-gain antenna toward Earth and spend eight hours or more transmitting stored data to NASA's Deep Space Network antennas in Australia, Spain and California. When the largest dishes are used, data rates of up to 165,900 bits per second are possible, allowing scientists to receive up to four gigabytes of data per day. "I've been with this thing since it was a hunk of aluminum," Webster said in an interview. "Sometimes I take out pictures of the cabling and just marvel at the way this thing was cabled and put together. It's been a joy to fly and it was a joy to build." The remote sensing instruments will provide the spectacular pictures that will most appeal to the public. The cameras and spectrometers "will be addressing questions like what does the surface of Titan look like underneath its veil of haze? Are there craters there? Are there lakes?" project scientist Dennis Matson said before launch. "When we come close to the rings of Saturn and the surfaces of icy satellites and look at them at high resolution, what are they really going to look like? What are they composed of? What is the composition of Saturn's atmosphere? How does that composition change from one place to another across Saturn? How does it change with time?" Credit: ESAThe fields and particles instruments "consist of particle spectrometers of various types, magnetometers, radio instruments and the magnetospheric imaging instrument," Matson said. "Things this suite of instruments will address are things related to the nature of the plasma that surrounds Saturn, the nature of the magnetosphere, the characteristics of dust in the system." The magnetosphere of the planet "is a gigantic magnetic bubble that surrounds Saturn," he said. "It's very complicated, it has structure to it, there are many different neighborhoods in the magnetosphere where special processes happen. We will be visiting those places, measuring what's going on there, and for some of them we'll actually be able to take pictures of the processes as they occur. "Saturn also has a big magnetic puzzle. It's magnetic field is almost exactly aligned with its rotation axis. Our theory of magnetic dynamos says this is something that can't occur. So in the course of Cassini's measurement of the magnetic field around Saturn, we'll be addressing some fundamental questions about the nature of its magnetic field and how it arises and we'll learn some lessons. I think those lessons will turn out to be useful in terms of understanding the magnetic field here at the Earth, a place where we still do not understand why the magnetic field flips from time to time." Cassini's camera systems, of course, will provide the most spectacular results for the lay person. Several hundred thousand images are expected to be beamed back to Earth with a maximum resolution of two kilometers per pixel when looking at Saturn's rings, twice as good as images from the Voyager spacecraft. "Dynamically speaking, the ring system of Saturn shares a lot of common traits with systems as large as the spiral galaxies, which are trillions of times bigger," Porco said at a pre-launch news conference. "So in addressing questions about ring systems we are actually asking questions that are truly universal in nature." This picture of Saturn's rings was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in November 1980. Credit: NASA/JPLDespite the success of the Voyager encounters, "we are still left seeking an answer to probably the most fundamental question about Saturn's rings," she continued. "And that is, how did they get there and how long will they stick around? A system of rings like Saturn's is really a collection of many, many separately orbiting particles that are always in motion and constantly changing. And for reasons we don't really understand, they collect themselves into an enormous variety of features and structures. "Some of those features we think we do understand. They seem to be dynamically related to the satellites of Saturn, both satellites embedded within the rings and those external to the rings. And if our theories are correct, the dynamical interactions between the satellites and the rings should lead to discernible changes in the orbits of both ring particles and the satellites. "So a primary objective of the imaging system is going to be to refine the orbits of those satellites and actually search for the changes that have occurred between the Voyager epoch and Cassini's arrival there. And with that, we should have a direct measurement of the rate at which the rings are evolving and extrapolating from that, a much better estimate for how long the rings have been around and even, perhaps, a prediction for how long they will stick around in the future." Scientists believe the rings formed several hundred million years ago when one or more small moons broke apart in the grip of Saturn's gravity. Another camp believes a stray Kuiper Belt Object wandered too close and was ripped to shreds. Mathematical analyses show the debris from such a wreck would quickly spread out in a vast, thin disk. Subsequent collisions and impacts ground the fragments into smaller and smaller pieces, giving birth to the rings first glimpsed by Galileo in the early 1600s. The Cassini spacecraft was named after the French astronomer Jean-Dominque Cassini, who discovered several of Saturn's moons and the broad gap in its rings that is a famous target for amateur astronomers. The European Titan probe was named after Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch scientist who discovered the cloud-shrouded moon in 1655 and who developed the first accurate theory explaining the structure of Saturn's rings. An artist's concept shows Huygens parachuting to Titan after deployment from the Cassini orbiter. Credit: EADS AstriumThroughout its four-year orbital tour, Cassini will train its instruments on Titan to supplement what the Huygens probe discovers during its descent. "What makes it most interesting is the presence of methane, which makes up a few percent of the atmospheric composition," said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, European Space Agency project scientist. "Sun rays, cosmic rays and certain energetic particles break the methane and the nitrogen, which leads to a complex photochemistry which produces complex organic molecules. When going to Titan, we are looking for answers to many questions. One is what complex organic molecules nature makes from these two simple gases, nitrogen and methane? And how complex are molecules today on Titan." The Huygens/Titan probe is equipped with six science instruments:Descent Imager/Spectral RadiometerHuygens Atmospheric Structure InstrumentAerosol Collector and PyrolyzerGas Chromatograph/Mass SpectrometerDoppler Wind ExperimentSurface Science PackageHuygens will be released from Cassini on Christmas Eve. Spinning at 7 rpm for stability, the probe will slam into the atmosphere Jan. 14 at a speed of some 12,400 mph. When the velocity has dropped to about 870 mph, Huygens' aft cover will be pulled away by a pilot chute and the spacecraft's 27-foot-wide main parachute will deploy. The chute will be jettisoned 15 minutes after entry begins and from that point on, Huygens will ride beneath a smaller 9.8-foot-wide parachute. Impact on the surface at some 11 mph is expected about two-and-a-half hours after entry begins. Assuming the 705-pound Huygens doesn't splash down in a hydrocarbon lake, "we have good confidence the probe will survive landing," said Lebreton. "The landing speed is very low and there is a very good probability the probe will survive landing and we have capability to do measurements for half an hour on the surface. During the three-hour measurement phase, the probe will transmit its data to the overflying orbiter." Huygens is shown landing on the surface of Titan in this illustration. Credit: ESAThe original flight plan called for Huygens to enter Titan's atmosphere in late November as Cassini streaked overhead at an altitude of just 746 miles. But engineers were forced to delay Huygens' arrival to January because of an issue with the radio aboard the Cassini mothership that will be used to relay data from Huygens to Earth. During a post-launch test, engineers discovered the radio receiver could not cope with the Doppler shift in the frequency of the signal coming from Huygens due to Cassini's high relative velocity. Much like the pitch of a siren changes as a police car races past a stationary observer, the frequency of radio waves can shift a significant amount if relative velocities are high enough. "Originally, the closing speed of Cassini coming up on Huygens, which is for all practical purposes sitting still once it's in the atmosphere, the closing speed was about 5.8 kilometers per second (13,000 mph)," Mitchell said in a recent interview. "And because we were coming in almost dead overhead and going off to the right at about 1,200 kilometers (746 miles) altitude." The solution was to minimize the Doppler shift by reducing the relative velocities of the two spacecraft. That was accomplished by changing Cassini's trajectory slightly and delaying Huygens' release to Christmas Eve. During the Jan. 14 descent, Cassini now will be 37,300 miles from Titan and the difference in velocity between the two spacecraft will never be more than 8,500 mph. "We have pretty solid evidence that's going to work," Mitchell said. "We did some tests where we used the Deep Space Network stations transmitting an S-band signal with telemetry modulated onto the carrier so that from the receiver's point of view on the Cassini spacecraft, it should have simulated the probe quite accurately. We adjusted the frequency, taking into account the motion of everything, so that the frequency of the received signal at the receiver should very closely if not exactly match the frequency that the receiver will see coming from Huygens." This illustration shows Cassini receiving data from Huygens for relay to scientists on Earth. Credit: ESAThe tests were successful and a potentially crippling design flaw was resolved with no significant loss of science. Lunine can hardly wait. "We ought to be able to see a pretty good panorama of the area that the Huygens probe is going to land in," he said in an interview, describing the descent. "Those pictures will continue all the way down to the surface, they'll be interrupted right at the end when the camera switches over to take what are called spectra, which will tell us about the composition of the surface. So we ought to be able to get a pretty good panorama to start with. "We ought to be able to see whether the probe came down in an area that's mostly craters or other kinds of land forms. We ought to be able to get a hint of whether there might be pools or lakes of liquid in that area. It won't be immediately apparent whether dark places are liquid or solid, but depending on where the probe lands, we might get some direct information on that. And we might see clouds in the sky toward the horizon. "There may be some detection of lightning," he said, "although there probably isn't a lot of lightning in Titan's atmosphere. And then after impact, or touchdown, if the antennas aren't pointed in a strange direction, we should be able to get some information about the surface. If we're lucky enough to land in liquid, then the probe should be bobbing up and down and there's a tilt meter that will tell us that. And we might be able to get samples of surface material because the probe will still be warm and anything like these liquid hydrocarbons will vaporize and go up into the sample inlets."MISSION PREVIEWStargaze II DVDThe Stargaze II DVD has arrived! It features over 65 minutes of all new videos of the universe with newly-composed dolby digital and DTS 5.1 Channel surround sound music. Choose your store: - - - Solar system poster This new poster is popular for classrooms and children's bedrooms. It includes interesting facts and figures about the planets and their moons. 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The thievery and the detailed behavior of kinks were observed for the first time ever in images taken by the Cassini spacecraft.In an image taken on Oct. 29, Prometheus is seen stealing particles from the F ring while connected to the ringlets by a faint streak of material. A movie sequence of the ring, taken on Oct. 28, captures in freeze-frame motion the zigzagging kinks and knots, some of which are almost certainly caused by Prometheus.The kinks look like "hiccups" traveling around the ring. Consisting of 44 frames taken three minutes apart, the sequence represents almost two hours, or about one-eighth of the orbital period of F ring particles around the planet.Cassini was on a flight path that took the spacecraft away from the planet and farther south, so that the rings appear to tilt upward. The top portion of the F ring is closer to the spacecraft, while the bottom portion is farther away and curves around the far side of Saturn.Scientists are not sure exactly how Prometheus is interacting with the F ring here, but they have speculated that the moon might be gravitationally pulling material away from the ring. Scientists speculate that the ring particles may end up in a slightly different orbit from the one they were in prior to getting a 'kick' from the moon. These kicks occur at specific locations in the rings and can actually cause large waves or knots to form. In the still image, gaps in the diffuse inner strands are seen. All these features appear to be due to the influence of Prometheus in ways that are not fully understood.Saturn's moon Prometheus is following in the footsteps of the legendary Titan for which it is named. In Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to the mortals.Scientists will use what they learn about Prometheus' interaction with the F ring to understand the gravitational exchanges between moons and rings, which give rise to so much of the structure that is observed in Saturn's rings. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini conducts major orbit adjustment maneuver CASSINI MISSION CONTROL REPORTPosted: August 23, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft successfully completed a 51-minute engine burn that will raise its next closest approach distance to Saturn by nearly 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles). The maneuver was necessary to keep the spacecraft from passing through the rings and to put it on target for its first close encounter with Saturn's moon Titan on Oct. 26. Mission controllers received confirmation of a successful burn at 11:15 a.m. Pacific Time today. The spacecraft is approaching the highest point in its first and largest orbit about Saturn. Its distance from the center of Saturn is about 9 million kilometers (5.6 million miles), and its speed just prior to today's burn was 325 meters per second (727 miles per hour) relative to Saturn. That means it is nearly at a standstill compared to its speed of about 30,000 meters per second (67,000 miles per hour) at the completion of its orbit insertion burn on June 30."Saturn orbit insertion got us into orbit and this maneuver sets us up for the tour," said Joel Signorelli, spacecraft system engineer for the Cassini-Huygens mission at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.The maneuver was the third longest engine burn for the Cassini spacecraft and the last planned pressurized burn in the four-year tour. The Saturn obit insertion burn was 97 minutes long, and the deep space maneuver in Dec. 1998 was 88 minutes long. "The October 26 Titan encounter will be much closer than our last one. We'll fly by Titan at an altitude of 1,200 kilometers (746 miles), 'dipping our toe' into its atmosphere," said Signorelli. Cassini's first Titan flyby on July 2 was from 340,000 kilometers (211,000 miles) away.Over the next four years, the Cassini orbiter will execute 45 Titan flybys as close as approximately 950 kilometers (590 miles) from the moon. In January 2005, the European-built Huygens probe that is attached to Cassini will descend through Titan's atmosphere to the surface.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini craft reveals Saturn's cool rings CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 2, 2004 The Cassini spacecraft has taken the most detailed temperature measurements to date of Saturn's rings. Data taken by the composite infrared spectrometer instrument on the spacecraft while entering Saturn's orbit show the cool and relatively warm regions of the rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaThis false-color image shows that the temperatures on the unlit side of Saturn's rings vary from a relatively warm 110 Kelvin (-261 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in red), to a cool 70 Kelvin (-333 degrees Fahrenheit, shown in blue). The green represents a temperature of 90 Kelvin (-298 degrees Fahrenheit). Water freezes at 273 Kelvin (32 degrees Fahrenheit). The data show that the opaque region of the rings, like the outer A ring (on the far right) and the middle B ring, are cooler, while more transparent sections, like the Cassini Division (in red just inside the A ring) or the inner C ring (shown in yellow and red), are warmer. Scientists had predicted this might be the case, because the opaque ring areas would let less light through, and the transparent areas, more. These results also show, for the first time, that individual ringlets in the C ring and the Cassini Division are cooler than the surrounding, more transparent regions.The temperature data were taken on July 1, 2004, shortly after Saturn orbit insertion. Cassini is so close to the planet that no pictures of the unlit side of the rings are available, hence the temperature data was mapped onto a picture of the lit side of the rings. Saturn is overexposed and pure white in this picture. Saturn's moon Enceladus is visible below the rings, toward the center.The composite infrared spectrometer, one of 12 instruments on Cassini, will measure infrared emissions from atmospheres, rings and surfaces. This spectrometer will create vertical profiles of temperature and gas composition for the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. During Cassini's four-year tour, the instrument will also gather information on the thermal properties and composition of Saturn's rings and icy moons.?Cassini-Huygens is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science and Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer team is based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discoveries shed light on Saturn and Titan NASA ANNOUNCEMENTPosted: August 5, 2004The Cassini spacecraft, which began its tour of the Saturn system just over a month ago, has detected lightning and a new radiation belt at Saturn, and a glow around the planet's largest moon, Titan. The magnetospheric imaging instrument onboard Cassini recently discovered a new radiation belt just above Saturn's cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. Before this discovery, it was not anticipated that such a trapped ion population could be sustained inside the rings. Credit: NASA/JPL/APLThe spacecraft's radio and plasma wave science instrument detected radio waves generated by lightning. "We are detecting the same crackle and pop one hears when listening to an AM radio broadcast during a thunderstorm," said Dr. Bill Kurth, deputy principal investigator on the radio and plasma wave instrument, University of Iowa, Iowa City. "These storms are dramatically different than those observed 20 years ago."Cassini finds radio bursts from this lightning are highly episodic. There are large variations in the occurrence of lightning from day to day, sometimes with little or no lightning, suggesting a number of different, possibly short-lived storms, at mid- to high latitudes. Voyager observed lightning from an extended storm system at low latitudes, which lasted for months and appeared highly regular from one day to the next. The difference in storm characteristics may be related to very different shadowing conditions in the 1980s than they are now. During the Voyager time period when lightning was first observed, the rings cast a very deep shadow near Saturn's equator. As a result, the atmosphere in a narrow band was permanently in shadow -- making it cold -- and located right next to the hottest in Saturn's atmosphere. Turbulence between the hot and cold regions could have led to long-lived storms. However, during Cassini's approach and entry into Saturn's orbit, it is summer in the southern hemisphere and the ring shadow is distributed widely over a large portion of the northern hemisphere. This causes the hottest and coldest regions to be far apart.A major finding of the magnetospheric imaging instrument is the discovery of a new radiation belt just above Saturn's cloud tops, up to the inner edge of the D-ring. This is the first time that a new Saturnian radiation belt has been discovered with remote sensing. This new radiation belt extends around the planet. It was detected by the emission of fast neutral atoms created as its magnetically trapped ions interact with gas clouds located planetward of the D-ring. With this discovery, the radiation belts are shown to extend far closer to the planet than previously known. "This new radiation belt had eluded detection by any of the spacecraft that previously visited Saturn. With its discovery we have seen something that we did not expect, that radiation belt particles can 'hop' over obstructions like Saturn's rings, without being absorbed by the rings in the process," said Dr. Donald G. Mitchell, instrument scientist for the magnetospheric imaging instrument at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md.Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is also shining for attention. Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer captured Titan glowing both day and night, powered by emissions from methane and carbon monoxide gases in the moon's extensive, thick atmosphere. The glow of Titan's extensive atmosphere shines in false colors in this view of Saturn's gas-enshrouded moon acquired by the Cassini spacecraft visual and infrared mapping spectrometer during the July 2, 2004, flyby. This image is a combination of near-infrared colors, each of which probes different phenomena in the moon. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona"Not only is Titan putting on a great light show but it is also teaching us more about its dense atmosphere," said Dr. Kevin Baines, science team member for the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "What is amazing is that the size of this glow or emission of gases is a sixth the diameter of the planet," he added.The Sun-illuminated fluorescent glow of methane throughout Titan's upper atmosphere -- revealing the atmosphere's immense thickness and extending more than 700 kilometers (435 miles) above the surface, was expected. However, the nighttime glow, persistently shining over the night side of Titan, initially surprised scientists. "These images are as if you were seeing Titan through alien eyes. Titan glows throughout the near-infrared spectrum. If you were an alien it would be hard to get a good night's sleep on Titan because the light would always be on," Baines said.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini discovers ring and one, maybe two, objects CASSINI NEWS RELEASEPosted: September 9, 2004 Scientists examining Saturn's contorted F ring, which has baffled them since its discovery, have found one small body, possibly two, orbiting in the F ring region, and a ring of material associated with Saturn's moon Atlas. A new found ring of material, S/2004 1 R, in the orbit of Saturn's moon Atlas has been seen in this view of the region between the edge of Saturn's A ring and the F ring. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small object was discovered moving near the outside edge of the F ring, interior to the orbit of Saturn's moon Pandora. The object was seen by Dr. Carl Murray, imaging team member at Queen Mary, University of London, in images taken on June 21, 2004, just days before Cassini arrived at Saturn. "I noticed this barely detectable object skirting the outer part of the F ring. It was an incredible privilege to be the first person to spot it," he said. Murray's group at Queen Mary then calculated an orbit for the object.Scientists cannot yet definitively say if the object is a moon or a temporary clump. If it is a moon, its diameter is estimated at four to five kilometers (two to three miles) and it is located 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) from the F ring, Saturn's outmost ring. It is at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn and within 300 kilometers (190 miles) of the orbit of the moon Pandora. The object has been provisionally named S/2004 S3. Scientists are not sure if the object is alone. This is because of results from a search through other images that might capture the object to pin down its orbit. The search by Dr. Joseph Spitale, a planetary scientist working with team leader Dr. Carolyn Porco at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., revealed something strange. Spitale said, "When I went to look for additional images of this object to refine its orbit, I found that about five hours after first being sighted, it seemed to be orbiting interior to the F ring," said Spitale. "If this is the same object then it has an orbit that crosses the F ring, which makes it a strange object." Because of the puzzling dynamical implications of having a body that crosses the ring, the inner object sighted by Spitale is presently considered a separate object with the temporary designation S/2004 S 4. S4 is roughly the same size as S3. A small new found object, temporarily designated S/2004 S 3, has been seen orbiting Saturn's outer F ring. The tiny object, seen centered in a green box, orbits the planet at a distance of approximately 141,000 kilometers (86,420 miles) from the center of Saturn. Its nature, moon or clump, is not presently known. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version In the process of examining the F ring region, Murray also detected a previously unknown ring, S/2004 1R, associated with Saturn's moon, Atlas. "We knew from Voyager that the region between the main rings and the F ring is dusty, but the role of the moons in this region was a mystery," said Murray. "It was while studying the F ring in these images that I discovered the faint ring of material. My immediate hunch was that it might be associated with the orbit of one of Saturn's moons, and after some calculation I identified Atlas as the prime suspect." The ring is located 138,000 kilometers (86,000 miles) from the center of Saturn in the orbit of the moon Atlas, between the A ring and the F ring. The width of the ring is estimated at 300 kilometers (190 miles). The ring was first spotted in images taken after orbit insertion on July 1, 2004. There is no way of knowing yet if it extends all the way around the planet."We have planned many images to search the region between the A and F rings for diffuse material and new moons, which we have long expected to be there on the basis of the peculiar behavior of the F ring," said Porco. "Now we have found something but, as is usual for the F ring, what we see is perplexing."Searches will continue for further detections of the newfound body or bodies seen in association with the F ring. If the two objects indeed turn out to be a single moon, it will bring the Saturn moon count to 34. The newfound ring adds to the growing number of narrow ringlets around Saturn.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. UK scientists are playing significant roles in the mission with involvement in six of the 12 instruments onboard the Cassini orbiter and two of the six instruments on the Huygens probe.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini diverts from collision course with moon Titan CASSINI MISSION STATUS REPORTPosted: December 28, 2004NASA's Cassini spacecraft successfully performed a getaway maneuver on Monday, Dec. 27, to keep it from following the European Space Agency's Huygens probe into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. This maneuver established the required geometry between the probe and the orbiter for radio communications during the probe descent on Jan. 14. The probe has no navigating capability, so the Cassini orbiter had been placed on a deliberate collision course with Titan to ensure the accurate delivery of the probe to Titan. The Huygens probe successfully detached from the Cassini orbiter on Dec. 24. All systems performed as expected.The European Space Agency's Huygens probe will be the first human-made object to explore on-site the unique environment of Titan, whose chemistry is thought to be very similar to that of early Earth before life arose. Next for Cassini is a flyby of Saturn's icy moon Iapetus on Dec. 31. Iapetus is Saturn's two-faced moon -- one side is very bright, and the other is very dark. One scenario for this striking difference is that the moon's surface is being resurfaced by some material spewing from within.The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since June 30, 2004, and has returned stunning pictures of Saturn, its rings and many moons. Titan has already been the subject of two close flybys by Cassini. With 43 more flybys planned and the in-situ measurements made by the probe, it is likely only a matter of time before Titan's secrets begin to unfold.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. The European Space Agency built and managed the development of the Huygens probe and is in charge of the probe operations. The Italian Space Agency provided the high-gain antenna, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini's science instruments.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini exposes Saturn's two-face moon Iapetus CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 15, 2004The moon with the split personality, Iapetus, presents a perplexing appearance in the latest images snapped by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger image version One hemisphere of the moon is very dark, while the other is very bright. Scientists do not yet know the origin of the dark material or whether or not it is representative of the interior of Iapetus.Iapetus (pronounced eye-APP-eh-tuss) is one of Saturn's 31 known moons. Its diameter is about one third that of our own moon at 1,436 kilometers (892 miles). This image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles) from Iapetus. The brightness variations in this image are not due to shadowing, they are real.During Cassini's four-year tour, the spacecraft will continue to image Iapetus and conduct two close encounters. One of those encounters, several years from now, will be at a mere 1,000 kilometers (622 miles).Iapetus was discovered by the Italian-French astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini in 1672. He correctly deduced that the trailing hemisphere is composed of highly reflective material, while the leading hemisphere is strikingly darker. This sets Iapetus apart from Saturn's other moons and Jupiter's moons, which tend to be brighter on their leading hemispheres. Voyager images show that the bright side of Iapetus, which reflects nearly 50 percent of the light it receives, is fairly typical of a heavily cratered icy satellite. The leading side consists of much darker, redder material that has a reflectivity of only about 3 to 4 percent. One scenario for the outside deposit of material has dark particles being ejected from Saturn's little moon Phoebe and drifting inward to coat Iapetus. One observation lending credence to an internal origin is the concentration of material on crater floors, which is suggestive of something filling in the craters. Iapetus is odd in other respects. It is in a moderately inclined orbit, one that takes it far above and below the plane in which the rings and most of the moons orbit. It is less dense than many of the other satellites, which suggests a higher fraction of ice or possibly methane or ammonia in its interior.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini eyes the culprit CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: October 11, 2004 Gazing beyond Saturn's magnificent rings, Cassini spotted the cause of the dark gap visible in the foreground of this image: Mimas, which is 398 kilometers (247 miles) wide. The gravitational influence of Mimas is responsible for the 4,800 kilometer- (2,980 mile-) wide Cassini division, which stretches across the lower left portion of this view. The little moon is at a nearly half-full phase in this view. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version A small clump of material is visible in the narrow F ring, beyond the edge of the main rings. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 8.9 million kilometers (5.5 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 88 degrees. The image scale is 54 kilometers (34 miles) per pixel. The image was magnified by a factor of four to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Cassini finds evidence for water on Enceladus BY WILLIAM HARWOOD
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Photo credit: JAXASatellite set for launch to measure rain and snow SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: February 26, 2014 Japan is preparing to launch a U.S.-built satellite Thursday to track rainfall and snowfall over the bulk of the world's population, anchoring an international initiative to better understand Earth's water cycle and its relationship to storms, droughts and climate change. Artist's concept of the GPM Core Observatory in orbit. Credit: NASA/GoddardThe Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory is set for liftoff in a two-hour launch window opening at 1837 GMT (1:37 p.m. EST) aboard a Japanese H-2A rocket from the Tanegashima Space Center in southern Japan.The launch window begins at 3:37 a.m. Japan Standard Time on Friday.The 174-foot-tall rocket will blast off from Launch Pad No. 1 at Yoshinobu Launch Complex, a facility on the rugged southeast coastline of Tanegashima Island off the southern shore of Japan's main island chain.Flying southeast over the Pacific Ocean, the orange and black launcher will let go of two solid-fueled boosters about two minutes after liftoff. Six-and-a-half minutes into the mission, the rocket's hydrogen-fueled LE-7A main engine will turn off and the first stage will fall away, leaving the H-2A's second stage to propel the 8,500-pound satellite faster than five miles per second.Deployment of the GPM spacecraft is expected less than 16 minutes after launch. Ten minutes later, the satellite's two solar array wings will unfurl to begin charging on-board batteries.Two months of activation and commissioning tasks are planned before the satellite gets down to business.The GPM Core Observatory is the centerpiece of a worldwide program to synthesize observations from disparate international satellites into a database of global rainfall and snowfall every three hours. The H-2A rocket during rollout to the launch pad at Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls"Why are we flying GPM? Rain and snowfall affect our daily lives in many ways," said Steve Neeck, NASA's deputy associate administrator for Earth science flight programs. "The distribution of precipitation ... directly affects the availability of fresh water for sustaining life. Extreme precipitation events like hurricanes, blizzards, floods, droughts and landslides have significant socio-economic impacts on our society."Designed and built at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, the GPM Core satellite weighs more than four tons fully fueled. It is about the size of a fire truck, and its solar panels deploy to a wingspan comparable to that of a small business jet, according to Art Azarbarzin, NASA's GPM project manager."Since rainfall and snowfall vary greatly from place to place and in space and time, satellites can provide a more uniform set for observations globally compared to ground instruments," Neeck said in a prelaunch press conference.The GPM satellite hosts two instruments to peer inside storms and through cloud layers from an altitude of more than 250 miles.One of the payloads, the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, will scan the planet to acquire three-dimensional views of rain and snow showers.NASA's GPM Microwave Imager, or GMI, built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. will measure the total precipitation suspended inside clouds and falling to Earth."The GMI will sense the total precipitation within all cloud layers, including, for the first time, light rain and snowfall," Neeck said. "The DPR will make detailed three-dimensional measurements of precipitation structures and rates as well as particle drop size." Photo of the GPM spacecraft during prelaunch testing. Credit: NASA/GoddardNASA and JAXA, the Japanese space agency, combined to spend nearly $1.2 billion on the GPM Core Observatory. The U.S. government's contribution totaled $933 million, including the spacecraft, ground systems and the microwave instrument. Japan's investment was worth $226 million to pay for the dual-frequency radar and the H-2A launch vehicle.The space agencies have worked on the mission for more than a decade as a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM, which launched in November 1997 and has functioned more than five times longer than designed.Precipitation observations by TRMM are limited to the tropics and subtropics. The satellite's orbit only flies between 35 degrees north and south of the equator, and TRMM's Ku-band radar instrument can only detect heavy rainfall.GPM will circle the planet at a higher inclination to observe precipitation as far as 65 degrees north and south of the equator, and the Japanese radar on-board the satellite can see light rain and falling snow, according to scientists."Thanks to TRMM, we have accumulated a lot of knowledge on tropical rain systems," said Riko Oki, the lead JAXA scientist for the GPM mission.Oki says GPM's radar has Ku-band and Ka-band functions. The new Ka-band radar frequency is sensitive to weaker rain storms and frozen precipitation.The radar works like ground-based weather radars that supply imagery seen on news broadcasts and used to issue real-time severe storm warnings. The instrument sends out a radar wave and registers its reflection off water particles in the atmosphere. Photo of the GPM Microwave Imager, featuring a 1.2-meter (3.9-foot) spinning antenna. Credit: Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp."The difference from ground radar is ground radar can measure a limited area, but spaceborne radar can measure the whole world," said Kinji Furukawa, JAXA's deputy GPM project manager.GPM will fill gaps in precipitation data over oceans, remote land masses and other undeveloped regions.The U.S.-built instrument on GPM will tally the sum of all precipitation contained within cloud layers. The 13-channel microwave imager will improve on the resolution of a similar sensor carried aboard the TRMM satellite.The microwave radiometer has a 3.9-foot-diameter, or 1.2-meter, spinning antenna rotating at 32 rpm.Gail Skofronick-Jackson, NASA's deputy GPM project scientist, compares the mission to a health check-up for the planet.With the dual-frequency radar, "we are able to have what we call a CT scan, it's a three-dimensional view of the precipitation and it's just like seeing three-dimensional within the cloud," Skofronick-Jackson says. "The GMI, on the other hand, I like to describe as an X-ray through the cloud. It's a projection of all the liquid and all the ice in the cloud."Just like a doctor uses CT scans and X-rays to diagnose what's happening in the human body, GPM Core Observatory is going to use the measurements of the radar and the radiometer to diagnose the precipitation strucutures within the cloud."The spacecraft launching Thursday joins a network of already-flying international satellite missions developed by the United States, Japan, France, India and Eumetsat, the European weather satellite agency.Researchers plan to use data from the GPM Core Observatory to calibrate microwave measurements from the other satellites, creating a uniform dataset scientists can rely on in their work.When scientists incorporate data from the international fleet, they can get a snapshot of all precipitation on Earth every three hours, according to Skofronick-Jackson."Precipitation is one of the most basic and important environmental elements relating to our daily lives," Oki said. 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Credit: MHIThe mission launched atop a 186-foot-tall H-2B rocket at 1948:46 GMT (3:48:46 p.m. EDT) from the Tanegashima Space Center, a picturesque spaceport at the southwest tip of the Japanese main islands.Producing more than 3 million pounds of thrust from its four solid-fueled boosters and twin LE-7A main engines, the launcher rapidly ascended into the predawn sky over Tanegashima, where it was 4:48 a.m. local time.The H-2B launcher, built and operated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, shed its four boosters and nose shroud a few minutes after liftoff, and its hydrogen-fueled first stage yielded to the rocket's LE-5B second stage engine to put the mission's 35,000-pound payload into orbit.The H-2 Transfer Vehicle deployed from the rocket about 15 minutes after launch, kicking off a six-day journey to the International Space Station.Arrival at the 450-ton complex is set for Aug. 9. NASA astronauts Karen Nyberg and Chris Cassidy will unlimber the station's robotic arm to reach out and capture the HTV as it hovers about 30 feet below the lab.Stretching 33 feet long and spanning 14 feet across, the HTV is about the size of a tour bus. It uses GPS and laser-guided navigation systems to approach and rendezvous with the space station.The astronauts will maneuver the HTV into position on the Earth-facing berthing port on the space station's Harmony module.The mission is Japan's fourth cargo delivery flight to the space station. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, or JAXA, pays its share of the station's operating costs by reimbursing NASA through cargo deliveries. JAXA and the European Space Agency have barter agreements with NASA to pay for space station membership through services instead of cash.The HTV 4 mission is also named Kounotori 4. Kounotori is the Japanese word for white stork.The fourth HTV mission is loaded with 11,900 pounds of equipment. About 8,600 pounds of cargo is riding inside the HTV's pressurized cabin, and engineers installed three items into the ship's unpressurized section. File photo of an HTV cargo craft approaching the International Space Station on a previous mission. Credit: NASAThe HTV is hauling a main bus switching unit - a device used to distribute electrical power on the space station - and a utility transfer assembly designed to route cables between the outpost's four solar array truss segments and pressurized modules.The switching unit and transfer assembly will be stored outside the space station to serve as spares in the event of failures with either system.The HTV's exposed pallet also carries a U.S. military payload housing eight experiments in atmospheric observation, thermal control, radiation measurement, data processing and lightning research. The instruments, sponsored by the Defense Department and NASA, will be installed outside the space station for several years.Japanese technicians loaded a diverse cache of equipment inside the ship's internal compartment, including food, clothes and water for the space station's crew. Other items include batteries, oxygen tanks for spacesuits, experiment samples, and a freezer to be added to Japan's Kibo laboratory module.A talking robot named Kirobo is among the HTV's passengers.Developed in a partnership between Japanese advertising giant Dentsu, automaker Toyota, the University of Tokyo and Robo Garage, Kirobo stands 13 inches tall and will be activated aboard the space station this fall.Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata, due to arrive at the space station in December, will have a conversation with Kirobo, whose designers say will demonstrate a new way to foster communication between robots and humans living alone. The 13-inch-tall Kirobo robot during zero-gravity testing. Credit: Kibo Robot ProjectThe HTV is also hauling an ultra-high resolution video camera to record comet ISON as it flies through the inner solar system later this year.Four tiny CubeSats are also aboard the cargo freighter:PicoDragon will collect imagery of Earth. It was built by the University of Tokyo, the Vietnam National Satellite Center and IHI Aerospace.ArduSat 1 and ArduSat X were developed by NanoSatisfi, a San Francisco-based start-up, with the help of crowd-funding. The satellite's developers say investors can buy time on the satellite for imaging and other research pursuits.TechEdSat 3 was developed by San Jose State University and the University of Idaho with oversight from NASA's Ames Research Center. The small satellite, about the size of a loaf of bread, will test a passive deorbit system called the Exobrake.The CubeSats will be transferred inside the space station, then placed in a specially-built deployer outside the Japanese Kibo laboratory module. 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