Importance Of Skin-To-Skin Contact

May 15th is National Kangaroo Care Day -- do you know what kangaroo care is, and how it benefits both Mom and Baby?

Baby on mom's chest

Kangaroo care describes the practice of a mother, father or other adult holding a newborn baby on their chest skin-to-skin. Not only does it benefit full-term babies and their mothers, but it’s commonly recommended to parents or premature babies as it improves their health and overall outcome.

Free webinar

On Wednesday, May 15th at 8 p.m. EDT, Nancy Holtzman, Hope Parish and Daniela Jensen will host a free webinar discussing the history and origin of skin-to-skin baby care and its many benefits. Even if you’re not able to sign in during the webinar, you can register at the site and an email will be sent to you after the program with a link to download a recording at your leisure.

“We’ll discuss separation vs. non-separation, newborn sleep patterns, and how skin-to-skin helps to achieve breastfeeding goals,” they said. “Learn practical details to the practice in a variety of settings and what 60 minutes of uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact will deliver.”

Kangaroo care benefits

Kangaroo care is seen as essential inpatient care for preemie babies, but it also has plenty of benefits for both full-term babies as well as the parent who holds them. For Baby, kangaroo care assists brain development, stabilizes her heart rate and breathing, helps build immunity and encourages breastfeeding. For mothers, kangaroo care helps increase breast milk production, reduces the risk of postpartum depression and speeds recovery time.

Hope and Daniela are the founders of the NüRoo Pocket (NüRoo, $60), a really lovely and revoluationary babywearing shirt that is designed to keep baby close to you during the newborn period (it holds babies up to 15 pounds). It enables plenty of skin-to-skin time and moms don’t have to worry about using a separate baby carrier. They hope to see the shirts used in the inpatient hospital setting to make kangaroo care easy and accessible for parents, but they're also a great gift for any mom-to-be.

More on newborn babies

How many diapers does a newborn need?
How to care for your baby's umbilical cord
11 Ways to beat new mom fatigue

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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 12, 2004Cassini represents the end of an era in U.S. spacecraft and mission design, a multi-billion-dollar, multi-instrument robot with a broad science agenda requiring the efforts of more than 5,000 scientists and engineers from 17 nations. The Cassini-Huygens mission emblem. Credit: NASA/JPLPrecursor missions included the Pioneer and Voyager deep space probes, which carried out the initial reconnaissance of the outer solar system with flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune in the 1970s and 1980s. Venus, Mars and Jupiter were the focus of what amounted to NASA's second wave of exploration with orbiters sent to each planet for long-term observations: the radar-mapping Magellan to Venus, the recently completed Galileo mission to Jupiter and multiple orbiters and landers to Mars. As initially envisioned, Cassini was part of a dual mission known as CRAF-Cassini. Both programs were to be built around the same Mariner Mark II spacecraft design to minimize costs. CRAF, or the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Mission, was to do what its name suggested. Cassini was to explore Saturn. But the CRAF mission was cancelled in 1992 and a few months later, new NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, author of what would become known as the "faster, better, cheaper" mission design philosophy, threatened to cancel Cassini as well, deriding the expensive spacecraft as a "Battlestar Galactica." Cassini lifts off from Cape Canaveral atop a Titan 4B rocket. Credit: NASA-KSC"With many countries participating in this great mission, none of us could imagine Goldin taking this drastic step and damaging our country's relationship with the Europeans," wrote former Cassini mission manager Charles Kohlhase in an article for The Planetary Society. "To our joy, on June 14, 1994, Jean-Marie Luton (then director general of ESA) sent a powerful letter to Vice President Al Gore, with copies to the U.S. secretary of state, key office directors, and of course Dan Goldin." The letter concluded with a paragraph that Kohlhase said saved Cassini from the budget axe: "Europe therefore views any prospect of a unilateral withdrawal from the cooperation on the part of the United States as totally unacceptable. Such an action would call into question the reliability of the U.S. as a partner in any future major scientific and technological cooperation." European participation in upcoming NASA projects, including the agency's flagship international space station program, was considered crucial and in the end, the Cassini project survived. When all was said and done, NASA spent $2.6 billion on the project, the European Space Agency spent $500 million and the Italian Space Agency chipped in $160 million for a total cost of about $3.26 billion. Getting to Saturn took almost as much time as it took to get the project approved and launched: 6.7 years. Because NASA did not have a rocket capable of boosting the heavyweight Cassini directly to Saturn, the spacecraft was forced to take a convoluted route, using the gravity of Venus, Earth and Jupiter to build up the velocity necessary to reach its target. The Centaur upper stage of the U.S. Air Force Titan 4B rocket that launched Cassini on Oct. 15, 1997, was used to slow the craft down so it could fall into the inner solar system. After flying by Venus on April 26, 1998, and again on June 24, 1999, Cassini streaked past Earth at an altitude of just 727 miles or so on Aug. 18, 1999. From there, the spacecraft headed for Jupiter and a final velocity boosting flyby on Dec. 30, 2000. This graphic illustrates Cassini's long trek to Saturn. Credit: NASA/JPLWhile Cassini's primary mission is to last four years, it has enough power and propellant to last many years beyond, should NASA choose to fund additional mission support. "We're long overdue for a visit to the lord of the rings," said Orlando Figueroa, director of solar system exploration at NASA headquarters. "We're looking forward to significant science coming out of the mission and we intend to keep it alive for as long as we can. This is a flagship mission of incredible importance to solar system exploration." Throughout its seven-year voyage to Saturn, Cassini has operated in near flawless fashion. Aside from the issue with the receiver needed to collect data from Huygens, engineers have encountered only four other problems of any significance. For reasons still not fully understood, the optics in Cassini's narrow-angle camera clouded up after launch, producing blurry images. But by warming the optics in a carefully controlled fashion, engineers were able to clear up the problem "to the point where we think it is at least as good as it ever was before," said program manager Bob Mitchell. Another problem involved a radio science experiment, one unrelated to the issue with the Huygens probe. A component in a Ka-band radio failed well into the mission, resulting in a loss of sensitivity for certain gravitational wave studies. Part of that research was completed before the failure and other aspects of the experiment can be conducted as originally planned. The overall impact, Mitchell said, was minimal. A third problem is a large leak in the main helium regulator used to pressurize Cassini's propulsion system for major rocket firings. Engineers believe foreign object debris, possibly from an explosive pyrotechnic device, which was fired shortly after launch to activate the system, lodged in the regulator, preventing a valve from seating fully. Helium is used to push propellants through Cassini's plumbing and into the main engine's combustion chamber at a constant pressure. The regulator controls that pressurization, which is needed for long firings like the upcoming Saturn Orbit Insertion burn. In this case, Cassini's complexity and built-in redundancy came to the rescue. By delaying the opening of a downstream latch valve to just 70 seconds or so before main engine ignition, engineers were able to work around the regulator issue with no impact to mission operations. The procedure was used for a major 88-minute Deep Space Maneuver rocket firing back in 1998 and again in late May for a six-minute burn to fine-tune the Phoebe flyby trajectory. No one expects any problems for the Saturn Orbit Insertion burn. An artist's concept of Cassini performing an engine firing. Credit: NASA/JPLThe fourth problem, and one that has at least some potential for downstream impact to normal operations, involves Cassini's stabilizing reaction wheels. By controlling the spin of three such wheels, oriented 120 degrees apart, flight engineers can re-orient Cassini or keep it rigidly locked on target, reducing the spacecraft's motion to 10 times less than the movement of a clock's hour hand. A fourth wheel can be moved into position to take over in case of problems with any one of the other three. Two years ago, engineers noticed "some chatter, some vibration" in the bearings of reaction wheel No. 3. It's a phenomenon known as cage instability, "kind of like a rattling ball bearing in your axle bearings of your car," said Julie Webster, lead spacecraft engineer. To be on the safe side, wheel No. 4, the spare, was spun up and No. 3 was moved into the backup position. "So now we're operating on wheels 1, 2 and 4 and they're operating just fine," Mitchell said. But friction levels also are increasing, albeit very slowly, in the other wheels. "We think it's probably pretty normal, standard behavior," Mitchell said. "We have talked to some projects ... that have used wheels like this, or similar to this, and none of them has seen this kind of a problem. But none of them had the level of instrumentation that we've got, either. So we suspect they probably had exactly the same phenomena occurring and they just didn't see it." Engineers have analyzed the telemetry from the three operating wheels and "we have extrapolated it out to well beyond end of mission and it doesn't get even close to what the torque threshold is for our ability to spin these things," Mitchell said. "But it's something that we're keeping an eye on."MISSION PREVIEWFallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: - - - Moon RushThis book examines how the exploration of space, specifically a commercial base on the Moon and Mars would transform our economies on the Earth as surely as the discovery of the New World transformed the old world of Europe.Choose your store: - - - Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors' patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: - - - Get inside Apollo!Full color drawings reveal like never before the details of the Apollo Command and Service Modules.Choose your store: - - - | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Follow the Huygens probe's descent to the surface of Saturn's moon Titan! Reload this page for the latest on the mission.SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 2005A missing computer command - apparently the result of human error - caused the loss of half the pictures taken by Europe's Huygens probe as it descended to the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. But project officials said today the 350 pictures that made it back, along with high-quality data fromthe spacecraft's other instruments and unexpected measurements by Earth-based radio telescopes, should fulfill all of the mission's primary objectives.Read our .Also, you can see our montage of Huygens pictures showing the landing area .Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE NEW PICTURES PRESENTED WITH EXPERT NARRATION VIDEO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION AUDIO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION VIDEO:RESULTS FROM HUYGENS' SURFACE SCIENCE PACKAGE VIDEO:CHIEF SCIENTIST EXPLAINS COMMUNICATIONS ERROR VIDEO:TODAY'S PHOTO AND SCIENCE BRIEFING AUDIO:TODAY'S PHOTO AND SCIENCE BRIEFING 2015 GMT (3:15 p.m. EST)Here is a press statement from Lockheed Martin:"After over seven years in space, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Huygens probe has descended through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest of Saturn's multitude of moons."Pictures of Titan's exotic environment were provided by the Descent Imager/ Spectral Radiometer (DISR), a complex instrument designed and built by Lockheed Martin for the University of Arizona and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). NASA's Cassini spacecraft, with the Huygens probe in tow, was inserted into orbit around Saturn on June 30, 2004, initiating four years of orbital science investigations of the giant ringed planet and its many mysterious moons."We couldn't be more pleased for our colleagues at the University of Arizona, NASA and ESA as Huygens has allowed us unprecedented access to one of the most mysterious moons in the solar system,' said James Crocker, vice president, Civil Space, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. 'The superb performance of the DISR hardware and the many years of hard work by the DISR team are equally gratifying, and we're proud to play a role in this exciting international voyage of exploration.'"As Huygens descended by parachute through Titan's thick atmosphere, DISR made a range of imaging and spectral observations using several sensors and fields of view. The radiation balance of the atmosphere was measured by monitoring the upward and downward flow of radiation. A calculation of the size, number and density of suspended particles in the atmosphere was made possible by measuring the light intensity around the Sun. Two imagers (one visible, one infrared) observed the surface during the latter stages of the descent, and built up a mosaic of pictures around the touch down site. A side-view visible imager captured a horizontal view of the horizon and the underside of the cloud deck. The spectral measurements of the surface were enabled by a lamp that switched on shortly before touch down to augment the weak sunlight."The study of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, is one of the major goals of the Cassini/Huygens mission. Although it is believed to be too cold to support life, haze-covered Titan may preserve, in deep-freeze, many of the same chemical compounds that preceded life on Earth. The Huygens descent and touch down is the most distant descent by a robotic probe ever attempted on another object in the solar system. Over the course of the orbital mission, Cassini will have executed 45 flybys of Titan, coming as close as approximately 590 miles (950 km) above the surface."This will permit high-resolution mapping of the moon's surface with an imaging radar instrument, which can see through the opaque haze of Titan's upper atmosphere."The second largest planet in our solar system, after Jupiter, Saturn serves as a natural laboratory to better understand the formation of our Solar System five billion years ago, as the planet and its rings are a close analog to the disc of gas and dust surrounding the nascent Sun that formed the planets. Detailed knowledge of the dynamics of interactions among Saturn's elaborate rings and numerous moons will provide valuable data for understanding how each of the solar system's planets evolved."The Cassini spacecraft was launched on a Lockheed Martin-built Air Force Titan IV/Centaur rocket Oct. 15, 1997. The Cassini propulsion module - also built by Lockheed Martin - is the largest U.S. planetary spacecraft propulsion system ever built, and was fired 17 times en route to Saturn, and will be ignited approximately 150 more times before the end of the mission. In addition to DISR, the Titan IV/Centaur and the propulsion system, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company designed and built the three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that power spacecraft systems."JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. ESA managed the development of Huygens and is in charge of operations of the probe from its control center in Darmstadt, Germany. The Italian Space Agency provided the high-gain antenna, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini's science instruments. JPL manages the overall program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C."1135 GMT (6:35 a.m. EST)Tired and weary after a sleepless night spent sorting through their data, scientists today unveiled more pictures returned from the European Space Agency's Huygens probe that landed on Saturn's moon Titan Friday.PHOTO: PHOTO: PHOTO: PHOTO: 1040 GMT (5:40 a.m. EST)An apparently missing command caused the loss of Huygens' Channel A data stream during descent to Titan yesterday, prompting ESA to form an investigation into the error. The Channel B data link worked, allowing over 300 pictures and information from the probe's instruments to be relayed up to the Cassini orbiter. With two data paths, scientists had their choice of either relaying the same set of pictures to Cassini twice for redundancy or taking two sets of pictures to maximize the potential number of images. They opted to acquire two sets of pictures, and the lack of Channel A caused half of the expected number of pictures from Huygens to be lost. The Channel A problem also resulted in the loss of data for the Doppler wind experiment between Huygens and Cassini. But ESA's chief scientist says data from radio telescopes on Earth that were listening to the tones from Huygens should allow researchers to complete the winds experiment. FRIDAY, JANUARY 14, 2005Initial pictures of Saturn's moon Titan snapped by Europe's Huygens probe during its historic atmospheric descent and touchdown today show an active world likely carved by the flow of cryogenic liquids that may still pool on its frigid surface, a leading planetary scientist says.Read our .Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:OFFICIALS OFFER THOUGHTS AFTER SEEING PICTURE VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:MISSION STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE'S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI'S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT'S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE 2225 GMT (5:25 p.m. EST)ESA has not released any additional pictures. Another report is scheduled for 1000 GMT (5 a.m. EST) on Saturday.2129 GMT (4:29 p.m. EST)The European Space Agency unveiled the first raw images from the Huygens Titan probe today, black-and-white pictures showing ice blocks strewn across the surface and hard-to-interpret features resembling drainage channels and, possibly, a frigid shoreline of sorts.Read our .2043 GMT (3:43 p.m. EST)An extraordinary raw picture returned from Huygens shows the view from Titan's surface. You can see the picture .2005 GMT (3:05 p.m. EST)There was just one picture released so far. European Space Agency plans to unveil more photos about two hours from now.2002 GMT (3:02 p.m. EST)You can see the first picture . It was taken at an altitude of 16 km as Huygens made its descent.1956 GMT (2:56 p.m. EST)The first image shows what appear to be drainage channels flowing to a possible shoreline, the camera's scientist says. The pictures are raw and unprocessed.1955 GMT (2:55 p.m. EST)The first picture from the descending Huygens probe showing the Titan surface has been revealed in mission control!1930 GMT (2:30 p.m. EST)ESA has released some quote by various officials following today's landing on Titan:"This is a great achievement for Europe and its U.S. partners in this ambitious international endeavour to explore the Saturnian system," said Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA's director general. "Titan was always the target in the Saturn system where the need for 'ground truth' from a probe was critical. It is a fascinating world and we are now eagerly awaiting the scientific results," says Professor David Southwood, director of ESA's scientific program. "The Huygens scientists are all delighted. This was worth the long wait," says Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens mission manager. Huygens is expected to provide the first direct and detailed sampling of Titan's atmospheric chemistry and the first photographs of its hidden surface, and will supply a detailed 'weather report.'One of the main reasons for sending Huygens to Titan is that its nitrogen atmosphere, rich in methane, and its surface may contain many chemicals of the kind that existed on the young Earth. Combined with the Cassini observations, Huygens will afford an unprecedented view of Saturn's mysterious moon. "Descending through Titan was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and today's achievement proves that our partnership with ESA was an excellent one," says Alphonso Diaz, NASA associate administrator of science. "The teamwork in Europe and the USA, between scientists, industry and agencies has been extraordinary and has set the foundation for today's enormous success," concludes Jean-Jacques Dordain. 1800 GMT (1:00 p.m. EST)Robert Mitchell, NASA's Cassini program manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., says the loss of one telemetry stream from the Huygens Titan probe appears to be the result of an actual problem of some sort on board the spacecraft.Read our .1745 GMT (12:45 p.m. EST)There will be a pause in live reports from ESA while the rest of the data is downlinked from Cassini and scientists have a chance to begin examining the mounds of information. The next event is expected after 1945 GMT (2:45 p.m. EST) with some initial science news, potentially the first pictures from Huygens. We'll be posting them here as soon as they are released.1722 GMT (12:22 p.m. EST)NASA's Cassini Saturn orbiter began downlinking science data from the European Space Agency's Huygens probe at 11:19 a.m. EST (1619 GMT), confirming the spacecraft not only survived its high-speed plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan, but that its instruments worked to remotely explore one of the strangest worlds in the solar system.Read our .1706 GMT (12:06 p.m. EST)Engineers says the Channel A and Channel B data paths from Huygens are redundant with the exception that Channel A is needed for the Doppler wind experiment with the Cassini orbiter. The Channel A telemetry stream isn't working as expected, but Channel B appears normal, ESA says.1701 GMT (12:01 p.m. EST)The temperature inside the probe was 25 degrees C as it was descending through 50 km altitude, the ongoing data review shows. 1658 GMT (11:58 a.m. EST)The probe went through the entry phase, the parachute deployment was within 15 seconds of the planned time and onboard accelerometer data worked normally, officials are saying at the news conference. The playback of data continues.1655 GMT (11:55 a.m. EST)ESA says data is being received normally on the Channel B telemetry steam. However, the Channel A has a question mark surrounding it.1645 GMT (11:45 a.m. EST)Here is a press statement from Alcatel:"The Huygens space probe has arrived on Titan. The probe was built by prime contractor Alcatel Space, a subsidiary of Alcatel, leading a consortium of 40 companies andlaboratories. Alcatel Space is the first European company to have met thechallenge of constructing a spacecraft designed to resist such draconianconditions. This is the first time that a man-made object has landed on themoon of a planet so far away in our solar system. This is also the firsttime that an European probe has successfully landed on another part of thesolar system."The interplanetary voyage of Cassini/Huygens took seven years, and made useof successive gravity boosts from Venus (twice), the Earth and Jupiter.Huygens had to stand up to temperatures of 212 deg F near Venus, and made ablind crossing of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, then therings of Saturn. However, the technical challenge reached its zenith duringthe descent towards Titan, which lasted nearly three weeks after theseparation from the Cassini mother-craft on December 25. Followingaerodynamic braking in the upper atmosphere, then deployment of threeparachutes to control the descent, the probe landed on the surface ofTitan. Huygens is a veritable flying lab, featuring six advancedinstruments to carry out all measurements expected by the scientificcommunity."Meanwhile, Cassini is in orbit around Saturn for its own observationmission, while relaying data from Huygens back to Earth."The Cassini/Huygens programs was an unprecedented technical challenge,tackling aspects that had never before been studied:Major restrictions on mass and energy, given the distance to betraveled and the complex trajectory needed to reach Saturn via gravityboosts form Venus, Earth and Jupiter.Completely autonomous operation.High-precision Cassini/Huygens separation maneuvers.Thermal shield adapted to an entry into Titan's atmosphere.Parachute deployment at supersonic speed.Sufficient robustness to stand up to unknown elements, especiallyatmospheric (furthermore, scientists have continuously changed their modelssince the knowledge of Titan was increased, which required an importanteffort to ensure successful entry)."We are especially proud of this huge success by our customer ESA, inpartnership with NASA and ASI," said Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO ofAlcatel Space. "Not only is it a world first in exploration of theuniverse, it also marks a major step forward in better understanding theorigins of life. With the Huygens mission now accomplished, we want toreaffirm our unyielding commitment to carrying out the most demandingprograms for interplanetary exploration and observation of the universe,alongside European scientists and space agencies. We hope that this missionwill pave the way to other adventures that prove to be just as exciting,both scientifically and technologically."1635 GMT (11:35 a.m. EST)The news briefing has begun."We have a scientific success," ESA director general Jean-Jacques Dordain reports. "We are the first visitors of Titan."1630 GMT (11:30 a.m. EST)We're awaiting the start of a planned news conference. The top science officials from ESA and NASA were in the room and then left.1619 GMT (11:19 a.m. EST)The Huygens data is being received! Applause has erupted in the German control room after the tense and anxious wait. It will take some time to begin examining the information. The first pictures from Huygens could be released later today, if all has gone well. 1605 GMT (11:05 a.m. EST)Scientists, engineers and senior officials have gathered in a large crowd within the European mission control center. Everyone is nervously awaiting the first bits of data from Huygens.1545 GMT (10:45 a.m. EST)NASA's Cassini Saturn orbiter has turned back toward Earth and started transmitting stored data from Europe's Huygens probe, which was still broadcasting a faint carrier signal from the surface of the moon Titan more than two hours after touching down and well after Cassini had turned away.Read our .1530 GMT (10:30 a.m. EST)Scientists have another 40 minutes of suspense before the first Huygens data arrives on Earth, which will confirm probe's transmissions to Cassini and recording aboard the orbiter has worked.1526 GMT (10:26 a.m. EST)The communications link between Cassini and Earth has been established. 1510 GMT (10:10 a.m. EST)"This is clearly an engineering success and we know the probe has been successfully entering the atmosphere, has been descending on the parachute to the surface," said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Huygens project scientist."But at this moment we cannot say more. I mean, we have not seen the data. What we have seen is a tone, a signal, which was indicating that the probe was transmitting but we have not seen any real data yet. So I would like to wait a bit more to say whether we have a successful mission or not."The first Huygens data via the Cassini telemetry playback is expected in about an hour.1501 GMT (10:01 a.m. EST)A tone is still being emitted from Huygens and detected by radio telescopes on Earth, now more than two hours after landing. Meanwhile, Cassini has turned away from Huygens to re-point its communications antenna for relay of data to Earth. 1445 GMT (9:45 a.m. EST)Here is the press statement issued by the European Space Agency:"The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, USA, a part of the global network of radio telescopes involved in tracking the Huygens Titan probe, has detected the probe's 'carrier' (tone) signal."The detection occurred between 11:20 and 11:25 CET (5:20-5:25 a.m. EST), shortly after the probe began its parachute descent through Titan's atmosphere. The extremely feeble signal was first picked up by the Radio Science Receiver supplied by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This signal is an important indication that the Huygens probe is 'alive'. However, it does not contain yet any substance; the latter is expected to come a few hours later via the Cassini spacecraft. "What the Green Bank radio telescope has detected is only a 'carrier' signal. It indicates that the back cover of Huygens must have been ejected, the main parachute must have been deployed and that the probe has begun to transmit, in other words, the probe is 'alive'. This, however, still does not mean that any data have been acquired, nor that they have been received by Cassini. The carrier signal is sent continuously throughout the descent and as such does not contain any scientific data. It is similar to the tone signal heard in a telephone handset once the latter is picked up. "Only after having received the data packets at ESOC will it be possible to say with certainty whether data were properly acquired. The first data set from Cassini will reach ESOC in the afternoon. Additional downlinks will follow throughout the evening and night for redundancy. "Further analysis of the signals will be conducted using other three independent data acquisition systems at the Green Bank Telescope. In addition to the GBT, sixteen other radio telescopes in Australia, China, Japan and the USA are involved in tracking the Huygens probe. "The ultimate goal of the tracking experiment is to reconstruct the probe's descent trajectory with an unprecedented accuracy of the order of one kilometre. The measurements will be conducted using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Doppler tracking techniques. This would enable studies of the dynamics of Titan's atmosphere, which is considered to be a 'frozen' copy of that of the early Earth. "The VLBI component of the tracking experiment is coordinated by the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE) and ESA; the Doppler measurements are conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory."1403 GMT (9:03 a.m. EST)Huygens remains alive and sending its beeping signal from the surface -- more than an hour after controllers calculate it landed. The relay of science data to Cassini concludes later this hour as the orbiter goes over the horizon from the landing site.The first science information is expected on Earth about two hours from now.1332 GMT (8:32 a.m. EST)Mission controllers say the tone from Huygens is still being received! The craft appears to have landed around 1245 or 1246 GMT (7:45 or 7:46 a.m. EST) on Titan and continues to operate from the moon's surface.1300 GMT (8:00 a.m. EST)A huge radio telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, was able to detect and lock onto a faint carrier signal from the Huygens Titan probe for more than two hours this morning, confirming the spacecraft's continued descent through the moon's atmosphere following a high-speed entry.A second radio telescope now has picked up the signal as well and Europoean Space Agency project scientist Jean-Pierre Lebreton said engineers were even able to confirm at least one of the probe's six on-board instruments had activated as planned.Read our .1115 GMT (6:15 a.m. EST)Huygens should be continuing its long, parachute-aided fall to the surface of Titan, with the large suite of science instruments operating to study the atmosphere and obtain volumes of pictures. Huygens is doing its work out of view from mission control. Real-time confirmation that the science program is being performed is not available because the craft is sending the information directly to the Cassini orbiter, which itself has turned away from Earth to receive the Huygens data.Earlier, controllers heard a simple tone emitted from Huygens that did announce the craft was at least alive.A news conference is coming up at 1230 GMT (7:30 a.m. EST). Cassini will resume communications with Earth about three hours later, and the data playback will continue for several hours.1033 GMT (5:33 a.m. EST)SIGNAL FROM HUYGENS! A radio telescope on Earth has detected a faint signal from the descending Huygens spacecraft, confirming the probe is alive, has survived its super-hot entry into the atmosphere and should be carrying out its scientific exploration on the way to the surface of Saturn's moon Titan.This is just a signal with no actual data included. The data is being relayed to the Cassini orbit and will be played to Earth later today.Nonetheless, the fact that a signal has been received to verify that Huygens is functioning prompted screams and cheers in mission control.THURSDAY, JANUARY 13, 2005The European Space Agency's Huygens probe, closing in on Saturn's mysterious moon Titan, is racing toward a dramatic, high-speed plunge into the moon's thick nitrogen atmosphere early Friday for a long-awaited parachute descent to an enigmatic surface.Released from NASA's Cassini Saturn orbiter on Christmas Eve, the flying saucer-shaped probe is targeted to slam into Titan's atmosphere at a velocity of 12,400 mph at 5:13 a.m. EST (1013 GMT).Over the next three to four minutes, the 705-pound probe is expected to endure peak heating of nearly 3,500 degrees and a braking force of some 16 Gs, slowing the craft to a more sedate 895 mph. At that point - 5:17 a.m. - the probe should release a small 8.5-foot pilot chute that will pull away a protective rear cover.Just 2.5 seconds later, the craft's 27.2-foot-wide main parachute will unfurl. For the first time since pre-release tests, an on-board radio will begin transmitting data to Cassini around 5:18 a.m. as the NASA spacecraft streaks past Titan some 37,000 miles away.Huygens is expected to reach the surface of Titan around 7:31 a.m. But with its main antenna pointed toward the landing zone, Cassini will be out of contact with Earth, leaving anxious engineers and scientists in the dark until the NASA craft turns back toward Earth and begins transmitting recorded data around 10:17 a.m. That's nearly three hours after Huygens touches down.Read our .WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 12, 2005In one of the boldest space missions ever attempted, a small European-built probe will slam into the atmosphere of Saturn's mysterious moon Titan Friday for a two-and-a-half hour parachute descent to its smog-shrouded surface.Beaming pictures and a torrent of data to NASA's Cassini Saturn orbiter, the flying saucer-shaped Huygens probe will give scientists their first close-up look at one of the largest expanses of unexplored territory in the solar system.Researchers are hopeful Huygens will answer their most pressing questions: whether hydrocarbons fall like rain and form pools of liquid ethane and similar compounds on the moon's frigid surface; and what erosional or depositional processes are responsible for covering up impact craters and producing a relatively flat, mountain-free surface.No matter what Huygens actually sees on the surface, scientists expect to gain insights into the workings of a thick, complex atmosphere that in some respects mirrors Earth's shortly after the planet's birth.Read our .Read our earlier coverage.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Music rings of Saturn CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: September 29, 2004 Looking something like the fibrous bow of a violin, Saturn's colorful rings sweep through this spectacular natural color view while two small moons look on. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version From left, the moons visible here are Janus (181 kilometers, or 112 miles across) and Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across). Cassini's view in this image is from beneath the ring plane; the moons are on the far side of Saturn. Janus leads Mimas as the two moons orbit the planet. Nearly the entire ring system can be seen in this view. The diaphanous C ring appears at the upper right, followed by the multi-hued B ring. Next, the famous Cassini division (4,800 kilometers, or 2,980 miles wide) separates the A and B rings. The outer edge of the B ring which forms the inner boundary of the Cassini division is maintained by a gravitational resonance with Mimas. Near the outer edge of the A ring are the Encke Gap (325 kilometers, or 202 miles wide) and the barely visible Keeler Gap (35 kilometers, or 22 miles wide). The faint, thread-like F ring is discernible just beyond the main rings. The image was obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on August 27, 2004, at a distance of 9.1 million kilometers (5.6 million miles) from Saturn. Images taken with red, green and blue filters were combined to create this color view. The moons have been enhanced in brightness to increase their visibility. The image scale is 54 kilometers (34 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Nature's canvas at Saturn CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: November 29, 2004In a splendid portrait created by light and gravity, Saturn's lonely moon Mimas is seen against the cool, blue-streaked backdrop of Saturn's northern hemisphere. Delicate shadows cast by the rings arc gracefully across the planet, fading into darkness on Saturn's night side. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The part of the atmosphere seen here appears darker and more bluish than the warm brown and gold hues seen in Cassini images of the southern hemisphere, due to preferential scattering of blue wavelengths by the cloud-free upper atmosphere. The bright blue swath near Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) is created by sunlight passing through the Cassini division (4,800 kilometers, or 2,980 miles wide). The rightmost part of this distinctive feature is slightly overexposed and therefore bright white in this image. Shadows of several thin ringlets within the division can be seen here as well. The dark band that stretches across the center of the image is the shadow of Saturn's B ring, the densest of the main rings. Part of the actual Cassini division appears at the bottom, along with the A ring and the narrow, outer F ring. The A ring is transparent enough that, from this viewing angle, the atmosphere and threadlike shadows cast by the inner C ring are visible through it. Images taken with red, green and blue filters were combined to create this color view. The images were obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Nov. 7, 2004, at a distance of 3.7 million kilometers (2.3 million miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Cassini posterJust in time for the Cassini spacecraft's arrival at Saturn, this new poster celebrates the mission to explore the ringed planet and its moons. 2005 CalendarThe 2005 edition of the Universe of the Hubble Space Telescope calendar is available from our U.S. store and will soon be available worldwide. This 12x12-inch calendar features spectacular images from the orbiting observatory.Moon panoramaTaken by Apollo 14 commander Alan Shepard, this panoramic poster shows lunar module pilot Edgar Mitchell as a brilliant Sun glare reflects off the lunar module Antares.Mars Rover mission patchA mission patch featuring NASA's Mars Exploration Rover is now available from the Astronomy Now Store.Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors' patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: - | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.New Cassini picture shows rings in extraordinary detail CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: December 14, 2004This fantastic close-up of Saturn's outer C ring shows large and sharp changes in brightness across the rings, owing to the extreme variations in ring particle concentrations at different distances from the planet. The dark gap running through the center contains the Maxwell ringlet, as well as a faint, narrow ringlet discovered in Cassini images. Another very dark region to the right of the Maxwell gap is also a narrow gap. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of about 836,000 kilometers (519,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 4.6 kilometers (2.9 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.New view of Saturn's rings and moons from Cassini CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: June 21, 2004 Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version Saturn's magnificent rings show some of their intricate structure in this image taken on May 11, 2004, by the Cassini spacecraft's narrow angle camera. Although they appear to be solid structures, the rings are composed of billions of individual particles, each one orbiting the planet on its own path. Satellites visible in this image: Janus (181 kilometers, or 113 miles across) above the rings, and icy Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) below the rings. The F ring shepherd moons Prometheus and Pandora can be seen along Saturn's outermost F ring if the image is further contrast enhanced. The image was taken in visible light from a distance of 26.3 million kilometers (16.4 million miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 158 kilometers (98 miles) per pixel. Contrast in the image was enhanced to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Newest picture from Cassini shows Saturn in color CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: August 6, 2004A frigid ball of gas in the blackness of space, Cassini's new home, Saturn, appears cool and serene in this natural color image. The spacecraft obtained this view as it sped outward from the planet on its initial orbit. At the left, Saturn's shadow stretches almost completely across the rings, while at the right, the planet's illuminated face appears to gaze down at the far-off Sun. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload a larger version of image Images taken through blue, green and red filters with the Cassini spacecraft wide angle camera were combined to create this view. The images were taken on July 17, 2004, from a distance of about 5.8 million kilometers (3.6 million miles) from Saturn. The Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase angle of the image is 93 degrees. The image scale is 346 kilometers (215 miles) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras, were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Observatory watched Titan when Huygens arrived KECK OBSERVATORY NEWS RELEASEPosted: January 16, 2005The Huygens probe impacted Titan's atmosphere at 0906 GMT (local time on Titan) Friday, with an expected landing on Titan's mysterious surface three hours later. This near-infrared image shows Titan at the moment Huygens reached its target. Near-infrared surface image of Titan captured with Keck adaptive optics system moments after the Huygens probe reached its target. The bright and dark patterns on Titan's surface may be regions of solid ice and of liquid hydrocarbons. Credit: W. M. Keck Observatory"Although no disturbances in Titan's atmosphere were detected, the observations provide the best images that characterize the satellite at the moment of probe entry", says Antonin Bouchez, a staff member at the Keck observatory, who was leading the observing effort."It was worth getting up in the middle of the night for this historic moment", says Fred Chaffee, director of the Keck Observatory, "despite the bad weather on the mountain". Winds were blowing at 40-50 mph, while the mountain top itself was still cloaked with snow and ice from a recent storm. Other team members that particpated in the observations were David LeMignant from the Keck Observatory, Imke de Pater, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and Michael Brown, a professor at Caltech.Titan is of particular interest to scientists because it is the only moon in our solar system with a dense, methane-rich, nitrogen atmosphere, reminiscent of our own atmosphere here on Earth. The moon is cloaked in a thick, smog-like haze produced by the breakup of methane by sunlight. Further study of this moon could provide clues to planetary formation and evolution and, perhaps, about the early days of Earth as well. To get a closer look at Titan, scientists from three different international space agencies developed the Cassini-Huygens mission, a spacecraft orbiter that arrived in Saturn's orbit in July 2004 after a seven-year voyage. The four-year mission will include 70 orbits around the ringed planet with an array of instruments to study the planet, its rings and its 30 known moons.The Huygen's probe detached from Cassini on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24th, 2004. The probe has since been falling to Titan and entered the atmosphere shortly after midnight, local time on Friday morning (0906 GMT) January 14, 2005. Three sets of parachutes were to slow the probe and to provide a stable platform for scientific measurements. Instruments on board will collect information about the atmosphere's chemical composition and the clouds surrounding Titan during its 2-2.5 hour descent. The data will be radioed to the Cassini orbiter, which will then relay the data to Earth.Near-infrared images were taken from the W. M. Keck Observatory with the near infrared camera, NIRC2, and the adaptive optics system at the time of probe entry. The team had planned imaging sequences to look for thermal emissions or condensates at the probe entry site. Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:NEW PICTURES PRESENTED WITH EXPERT NARRATION VIDEO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION AUDIO:LISTEN TO SOUNDS FROM HUYGENS WITH NARRATION VIDEO:RESULTS FROM HUYGENS' SURFACE SCIENCE PACKAGE VIDEO:CHIEF SCIENTIST EXPLAINS COMMUNICATIONS ERROR VIDEO:SATURDAY PHOTO & SCIENCE BRIEFING AUDIO:SATURDAY PHOTO & SCIENCE BRIEFING VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:MISSION STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE'S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI'S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT'S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Odd-looking moon Mimas photographed by Cassini CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: July 26, 2004Soon after orbital insertion, Cassini returned its best look yet at heavily cratered Mimas (398 kilometers, 247 miles across). The enormous crater at the top of this image, named Herschel, is about 130 kilometers (80 miles) wide and 10 kilometers (6 miles) deep. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe image was taken in visible light with the narrow angle camera on July 3, 2004, from a distance of 1.7 million kilometers (1 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of about 102 degrees. The image scale is 10 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel. It has been magnified here by a factor of 2 to aid visibility.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle's last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.One of Huygens' two data routes not working BY WILLIAM HARWOOD
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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: November 18, 2008Astronauts Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper and Stephen Bowen wrapped up a six-hour 52-minute spacewalk today, installing a spare coolant system component on the international space station, moving a depleted nitrogen tank to the shuttle Endeavour for return to Earth and cleaning a damaged solar array rotary joint.All of the primary goals of the spacewalk, the first of four planned for Endeavour's mission, were accomplished, but the excursion was marred somewhat by a grease gun malfunction that released lubricant inside a tool bag. While Stefanyshyn-Piper struggled to clean up the mess, the untethered bag, carrying two grease guns, a scraper tool and other gear, floated away. Stefanyshyn-Piper tried to grab it, but it was too late.But sharing Bowen's tools, the spacewalkers still managed to clean and lubricate the starboard solar alpha rotary joint as required."You did a great job today, awesome EVA, welcome back," radioed Robert "Shane" Kimbrough from inside the shuttle as the spacewalk came to a close."Thanks," Stefanyshyn-Piper replied. "In spite of our little hiccup there, or major hiccup, I think we did a good job out there.""You really did, got all the tasks done.""You all were champs," mission control chimed in. "You rolled with the punches and made it all happen ahead of the timeline. It's much appreciated and we had a great time watching you."Today's spacewalk began at 1:09 p.m. and ended at 8:01 p.m. This was the 115th EVA devoted to space station assembly and maintenance since construction began 10 years ago this week. Total EVA assembly time now stands at 725 hours and 40 minutes.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:TUESDAY'S MISSION STATUS BRIEFING VIDEO:EVA NO. 1 CONCLUDES VIDEO:SOLAR ALPHA ROTARY JOINT REPAIRS BEGIN VIDEO:TOOL BAG ACCIDENTALLY FLOATS AWAY VIDEO:GREASE GUN SPILL MAKES MESS IN TOOL CARRIER VIDEO:SPARE FLEX HOSE COUPLER DELIVERED TO STATION VIDEO:EMPTY NITROGEN TANK MOVED FROM STATION TO SHUTTLE VIDEO:TUESDAY MORNING FLIGHT DIRECTOR INTERVIEW VIDEO:SHOW-AND-TELL OF SOLAR ALPHA ROTARY JOINT WORK VIDEO:WALKTHROUGH OF SPACEWALK NO. 1 PLAN VIDEO:NARRATED ANIMATION OF SPACEWALK SWAPOUT VIDEO:FLIGHT DIRECTOR'S SUMMARY OF FLIGHT DAY 5 VIDEO:FLIGHT DAY 4 HIGHLIGHTS MOVIE VIDEO:CREW OPENS HATCH AND ENTERS LEONARDO VIDEO:ATLANTA AND BOSTON TV STATIONS INTERVIEW CREW VIDEO:MONDAY'S MISSION MANAGEMENT TEAM UPDATE VIDEO:MONDAY'S MISSION STATUS BRIEFING VIDEO:LEONARDO MODULE SUCCESSFULLY MOUNTED TO STATION VIDEO:MONDAY MORNING FLIGHT DIRECTOR INTERVIEW VIDEO:PREVIEW ANIMATION OF LEONARDO
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